The Reality of Overunity Generators:
Evidence for an Open-System Universe

Essay by Paul A. LaViolette

December 2013

© Paul LaViolette, 2013


There are two energy generation processes that operate in the universe: conservative energy generation and nonconservative energy generation.  Standard physics recognizes only one of these sources, conservative energy generation.  But in doing so it leaves a large number of observed energy generation phenomena unexplained, as for example overunity generators that produce energy without consuming fuel.

Nonconservative Energy Generation Processes

Let us now consider nonconservative energy producing technologies of which there are a large variety in existence.  These violate the first law of thermodynamics and often Newton’s third law.  These over-unity or “free energy” technologies have the potential to yield very inexpensive power, new modes of transportation and to greatly benefit society.  However, because their explanation lies outside the domain of standard physics theory, they are opposed by standard physicists and suppressed by governments.  The question that the standard physicist most often asks is where does the excess energy come from that these technologies generate?

The reason that physicists are in this dilemma is because they view the physical universe as a closed system, one that emerged into existence through a highly improbable freak event and that inevitably proceeds towards a heat death in the distant future.  They have extended the laws of heat engine thermodynamics to apply to phenomena in the universe as a whole, presupposing that the physical universe constitutes the totality of existence and that it is closed, i.e., has no “outside environment”.

But there is a new approach to understanding the physical universe that is being developed.  This instead views the universe as an open system and allows for the spontaneous generation of energy with no need of an antecedent high potential physical source.  This is the methodology of subquantum kinetics.  As mentioned elsewhere, subquantum kinetics has surpassed the prediction track record of general relativity and quantum mechanics in that it has upwards of 12 a priori predictions that were subsequently verified.  Moreover it constitutes a unified field theory, explaining the origin of electric charge, gravity, their force interactions, the origin of the nuclear force, spin, magnetism, beta decay, and a host of other phenomena in a unified theoretical framework.

In subquantum kinetics the physical universe is viewed as a pattern epiphenomenon of an inherently unobservable ether composed of etheron units that engage in reaction and diffusion processes throughout space and which proceed as well along a higher dimensional etheric continuum that extends beyond the physical, “above” and “below” our universe.  To those familiar with eastern metaphysics, the relation of the physical universe to the higher dimensional etheric realm is the same as that of maya to the greater Maya.  Hence the universe is like a water mark on a piece of stationary paper.  To us, the watermark is physically real and that seems to us as the totality, but in reality it is the paper that is the true reality, yet it is invisible to us.  We become aware that the paper is actually present by conducting laboratory experiments such as those that refute the special theory of relativity (see chapter 1 of Subquantum Kinetics for a list).

Let us put an imaginary boundary around the unobservable etheron states X, Y, and G that are proposed to compose the observable physical universe which itself consists of all existing fields, particles and photons, and call this system U.  Then subquantum kinetics holds that there is an etheric environment or outside to system U which is inherently active and maintains all matter, energy, and fields through its ever-present activity.  In fact, it views all matter, energy, and fields as mere inhomogeneities (waves or gradients) in this ether that would immediately vanish were the ether’s ongoing activity ever to cease.  A universe in which matter can materialize and dematerialize, where photons can spontaneously gain energy or loose energy?  To the conventional physicist this sounds like magic!  But what’s wrong with conceiving the universe as being a bit magical?  Many find this preferable to the positivistic, closed-system, clock-work-like model that physicists have constructed and whose ultimate fate is the thermodynamic heat death.  By shifting to this open system perspective, stories of holy icons or statues weeping tears of fragrant nectar, of magicians levitating themselves in the air, of mystics materializing vibhuti (sacred ash) in the air now become plausible and fill us with wonder.


Maniavskyi Monestary Icon in central Ukraine shedding tears

Maniavskyi Monestary Icon in central Ukraine shedding tears


Sai Baba materializing sacred ash (left), David  Blaine levitating (right)

Sai Baba materializing sacred ash (left), David Blaine levitating (right)

 Video of David Blaine levitating

It is known that the first law of thermodynamics, that entropy should spontaneously increase, is only valid for a closed system.  Open systems, systems that exchange matter and energy with their environment, can instead spontaneously decrease their entropy, increase their state of order.  The mathematics setting this forth was deduced by mathematician Ilya Prigogine, an achievement for which he was given the Nobel Prize.  The energy content of open systems can progressively increase provided that they import high energy potential fuels or food and export low energy potential products, or waste.  One example of such an order increasing system is a living organism.  Another example is an etheric reaction-diffusion system, such as Model G of subquantum kinetics.  In this case, it is not matter and energy, but etherons that enter and leave the domain of our physical universe, transforming into the G, X, or Y ether states that form the substrate of our universe, or transforming out of these states to other “outside universe states”, this entire river of activity taking place along a higher dimension that remains inherently inaccessible to us and our measuring instruments.  Yet we know it is there because by postulating it along with Model G, we are able to account for observable physical phenomena in a unified manner unequaled by any attempts previously made with the standard physics approach, string theory included.

To be able to properly understand the origin of free energy, one must first accept the reality of the inherently unobservable transmuting ether and its higher dimensional extent.  One must also come to realize that the physical world, while seeming real and substantial to us, is actually far from being real and substantial.  As mentioned above, it is merely a watermark, wave epiphenomena of the underlying ether.  Whereas standard physics is based on the positivist notion that only observable entities are real, one must completely reject this view and adopt the perspective that observable entities are actually what is figmentary and that it is the hyperdimensional ether that is the real existent.  Like Neo in the movie Matrix realizing that the physical world he was familiar with is actually just a computer generated illusion, “the matrix”, and that the real world lay beyond, but hidden from direct view, we too must make a similar shift of perspective.  Although in our case, reports from those that have “seen” indicate that this beyond is not a dark place, but one that is very beautiful and sacred.

A scene from the movie Matrix portraying the insubstantiality of the physically perceived world.

A scene from the movie Matrix portraying the insubstantiality of the physically perceived world.


Like Plato’s analogy which compares us to prisoners in a cave watching shadows projected on the wall which we take to be real events in our physical lives, we must follow the brave who realize they are really in a cave and who turn around and see that the real world lies beyond the opening of the cave.  Like the medieval explorer, we must peer beyond the outer boundary of the crystalline sphere, the positivist world view that modern science has woven for us, and realize that another reality exists beyond our physical grasp.

Renaissance-era woodcut portraying an adventurer breaking through to become aware of a new  concept of the universe that breaks through the conceptual boundaries of the crystalline sphere.

Renaissance-era woodcut portraying an adventurer breaking through to become aware of a new
concept of the universe that breaks through the conceptual boundaries of the crystalline sphere.


Once we have made this shift of perspective from “universe” to “meta-universe”, the origin of free energy becomes far easier to comprehend.  The open system view of the universe adopted in subquantum kinetics, leads to a new understanding for the origin of the physical universe.  The universe now does not come into being by some inexplicable and highly improbable explosive event in the distant past, but comes into being gradually through a process of continuous creation.  The new physics allows for material particles to continuously materialize throughout the universe.  This negentropic process called parthenogenesis, where a sufficiently large zero point electric potential fluctuation arising spontaneously in space, grows in size and ultimately matures into a subatomic particle is an example of a direct violation of the First and Second Laws.  Yet this emergence process may be easily observed and understood by computer modeling the Model G ether reaction system (see posted simulation).  The soliton particle so produced has structural characteristics that match those found for the nucleon in particle scattering experiments.  Subquantum kinetics has coined the term genic energy to refer to the newly born energy quantum that a subatomic particle embodies.  This signifies energy that is spontaneously generated, nonconservatively created.

This new physics paradigm also leads to the realization that within the supercritical regions of space where galaxies spawn themselves, photons as a rule spontaneously gain energy and continually blueshift their wavelength.  This phenomenon accurately accounts for the Pioneer effect, a photon blueshifting effect; it accounts for 72% of the earth’s geothermal energy; and it accounts for the energy output of jovian planets, brown dwarfs, and red dwarf stars, all of which lie on the same mass-luminosity relation.  It also explains the enormous energy output from novae, supernova explosions, and galactic core explosions.  Even upper main sequence stars that are run primarily on fusion energy, bring into being more matter through nonconservative parthenogenesis than they burn through energy conserving fusion reactions.  So even for such stars, it can be said that genic energy reigns supreme.  By the way, when the astrophysics Nobel Laureate Hans Bethe reviewed the photon blueshifting idea predicted by subquantum kinetics, his comment was that it was a very original idea and that there might be some truth to it.

So in overview, we find that, as a rule, most energy in the universe is being generated through nonconservative energy generation processes.  Free energy is not the exception, but the rule!  Only in intergalactic space, where the ether reactions are predicted to be subcritical, is energy spontaneously lost from the universe, again this is a nonconservative process, but one causing energy loss rather than energy gain.  This “tired-light” phenomenon accounts for why photons traveling through intergalactic space tend to lose energy and redshift, producing the observed cosmological redshift.

Inventors of overunity energy devices, it seems, have learned a way to generate genic energy, what Nature does all the time, but at a far faster rate.  The rate of genic energy generation production in photons traveling in the Earth’s vicinity is so slow that one must allow a test signal to travel many astronomical units of distance before a frequency shift large enough can be detected.  Inventors, on the other hand, by astutely observing nature and following their intuition have succeeded in far surpassing Nature in terms of the rate of genic energy generation.  Like Nature, the excess energy may ultimately be traced to the Prime Mover that animates the universe and gives us the sense of the flow of time, the vast reservoir of ever-present transmutive etheric activity that fills all space.  Thus overunity devices require no fuel, no pre-existing energic physical structure to break down or oxidize to produce their energy.  Their energy is nascent, genic energy.

Even conservative energy generation processes, such as solar, fossil fuel, or nuclear energy generation, may be considered ultimately to be forms of genic energy generation.  For if one traces how that light, coal, wood, or uranium came into being, one ultimately realizes that the matter burning in the Sun, or built up in the core of a blue giant star or in supernova explosion ultimately came about through natural processes which are predominantly of a nonconservative genic-energy-generation nature.

The finding that overunity devices violate the first law of thermodynamics is no longer inexplicable in the open system universe perspective.  The conventional physicist, operating in his closed system universe view, would object to those adopting the open system perspective.  They might feel that to do so is not fair, that to do so one is attempting to avoid the first law of thermodyanamics by changing the rules of the game, that adopting the open system universe view is too easy a way to escape their objection.  But who said that things have to be complicated.

Model G of subquantum kinetics postulates just five ether reaction-diffusion kinetic equations (which are expressed as three partial differential equations) and from this derives far more than most physics theories put together.  This reactive ether approach was not originally developed as a way of explaining where overunity devices get their excess energy.  It was developed because the soliton-like wave structures it gives birth to have properties very similar to subatomic particles.  Its ability to serve as a framework for understanding over-unity devices emerges as a bonus.  Another advantage is that it offers a reasonable and cogent explanation of how all matter and energy filling the universe initially came into being.

Some Examples of Free Energy Technologies

Let us discuss a few examples of overunity energy generators or propulsion devices.

Magnetic motors. The Engel permanent magnetic motor, reported on in a news article by Sepp Hasslberger, is a rotary device that has been observed to run continuously for seven months with only a small input of 70 milliwatts needed to operate its speed controlling disc, this being said to be a small fraction of the motor’s total rotary power.  No power output figures for the motor, however, have been mentioned.

In explaining the origin of the motor’s excess energy, we might focus on the neodymium iron boron magnets which provide the motive force to keep the motor spinning.  The magnetic field in the permanent magnets can be traced to the magnetic moment of unpaired electrons in the magnet’s material.  This further leads to the question of what powers the spin of an electron, spin being responsible for its magnetic moment.  Standard physics provides no answer and simply claims that spin is an inherent property of electrons.  Subquantum kinetics, however, interprets spin as a vortical motion of the X and Y ethers and attributes this vortical motion to the consumption of Y etherons and production of X etherons in the electron’s core.  The radial flow of Y into the electron’s core is hypothesized to create a vortical movement, although this must be checked out through future computer simulations of Model G.  These ether consumptions and productions in the particle’s core ultimately arise as a result of the underlying etheric transmutative flux.  So, the origin of electron spin and magnetic moment may ultimately be traced to the underlying etheric flux.  Hence the Engel magnetic motor may be said to derive its energy from this transmutive flux.

It is no use to think of this flux in terms of energy terms since energy (i.e., energy quanta, gravitational potential energy, electrical potential energy, etc.) has meaning only at the physical level.  At the subquantum etheric level we need other concepts to describe what drives these reactions forward.  Love maybe?  An inherent need to react?  Or perhaps we should invent a term less anthropomorphic like “subquantum action”.

Magnetic prime movers.  One example of this is the Nassikas thruster.  This is a hollow conical superconductor that has a permanent magnet fixed at its narrow end whose field is axially aligned with the nozzle’s throat axis.  When in the superconducting state, the nozzle acts as a magnetic shield and Meissner effect forces propel the nozzle and magnet assembly in the direction of the nozzle’s convergence.  Such movement violates both the first law of thermodynamics and Newton’s third law, sending standard physics into turmoil.  Unlike a rocket, this device creates a forward reaction force without a reaction force.  More will be written about this thruster in a separate posting.

Again, as in the case of the magnetic motor, we may trace the source of this propellentless thruster to the electron spin phenomenon that produces the magnet’s field.  This, in turn, is causally related to the activity of the etheric transmutative flux.  The excess energy, then, may be identified as a form of genic energy.  The exhibited violation of the law of energy conservation becomes a non-issue when we view the universe as an open system.

Spark discharge energy generators.  One example of this is the Papp engine.  This is a sealed cylinder engine that uses noble gases as its working fluid.  Spark discharges within the cylinders cause gas expansion which produces work having a greater energy content than the energy inputted to make the spark.  Do not believe the Wikipedia account of this technology.  The amateurs writing it give a distorted story.  It was the skeptical physicist Richard Feynman who pulled the plug on the device even when instructed not to for safety reasons.  The result was that this caused the device to explode and as a result one innocent bystander was killed.  Overunity devices can operate safely provided that the ignorant are not around to meddle in their operation.  Another technology that may fit in this category is autogenous Pulsed Plasma Abnormal Glow Discharge (aPPAGD).  This has achieved mean coefficient of performance of 400% to 600%.

Experiments on spark discharges independently conducted by physicists Panos Pappas and Peter Graneau have shown that a spark produces more output heat energy than the energy inputted to create the spark.  Pappas has proposed that all natural lightning discharges are inherently overunity.  He has suggested that the excess energy can be explained by Ampere forces.  During a spark discharge, the high velocity electrons making up the spark are compressed together by Ampere electrodynamic forces which are velocity dependent and which at high velocity overcome the electrons’ repulsive Coulomb force.  Upon striking the cathode, the electrons come to an abrupt halt, resulting in a disappearance of the compressive Ampere forces with the result that electron repulsion dominates causing an explosion.  He theorizes that the excess energy outputted likely comes from this Coulomb repulsion, the compressive Ampere forces having drawn little or no energy from the discharge.

Again, as with other overunity technologies, devices deriving energy from spark discharges are completely permissible within the open system physics of subquantum kinetics.  The Ampere force law requires the existence of an absolute local rest frame supports the notion that fields are formed in an ether and hence must be referenced to the local ether frame.  It is preferred over the Biot-Savart law which requires relative frames considering the many documented experiments that have disproven special relativity. Subquantum kinetics adopts the Amperian paradigm.  Again, realizing that fields are essentially concentration patterns in an underlying ether, watermarks on the sheet of paper, energy gains as a result of field actions are allowed.  Nothing needs to be consumed to produce the spark’s excess energy; this energy is genic in origin.

Zero-point energy rectifiers.  One example of such a device is the Johnson diode, a zero-bias diode that is able to rectify a current from random thermal energy including zero-point energy.  A good review of this device is given by Tom Valone in his paper on the Zero Point Energy Diode Project.  Although each diode produces on the order of picowatts of power, nanoscale 3D arrays imprinted with trillions of these diodes could result in power levels that have commercial application.  These diodes exhibit a violation of the second law of thermodynamics in that they allow energy to be spontaneously created from ambient heat, an instance of entropy decrease, of Maxwell’s demons being brought to reality.  Whether they derive their energy from ambient thermal energy, which ultimately is of stellar origin, or from the zero-point energy continuum itself, in both cases these energy sources are powered by the underlying etheric flux that sustains and activates the physical universe.

Asymmetric capacitor prime movers.  Examples of such devices include Townsend Brown’s flying disc and the Lafforgue capacitor. Brown’s flying disc carousel demonstration has been reproduced by several researchers (see news item).  Following security leaks in the early 90′s, I came to realize that the B-2 bomber utilizes Townsend Brown’s asymmetrical capacitor electrogravitic propulsion technology; see the book Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion.  The B-2 is estimated to energize its air frame with millions of volts and achieve completely fuelless propulsion by producing far more kinetic energy than it expends in charging its wing.  By using air scoops to reclaim some of this kinetic energy as high voltage electrical power, it is able to completely power itself on the free energy it creates.  Here we use the term “free energy” in the colloquial sense as opposed to the meaning of the word used in the formal thermodynamics.

Laboratory tests assessing the vertical lift capability of a modified version of Brown’s asymmetrical capacitor disc under high vacuum conditions demonstrated its overunity performance.  A disc weighing 100 grams and energized with 250,000 volts DC was able to produce a propulsion force of 1.1 Newtons with a power expenditure of just 0.5 watts.  Left free to accelerate in space, after 10 seconds such a disc would have traveled 550 meters and performed a work output amounting to 6 X 109 ergs while expending just 5 X 107 ergs of electrical energy.  Hence the disc was capable of producing 120 times more kinetic energy than the equivalent electrical energy it consumed.

Analysis of the electric field geometry around Brown’s discs, as well as that around the B-2 bomber wing indicates that the rear electrode will experience a forward propelling force greater than the backward directed force experienced by the disc or aircraft’s leading edge.  This is attributable to the divergent character of the electric field which fans out to a low intensity at the craft’s larger, leading edge electrode.  Since the electric field is not attached to the charges on the disc or wing, but rather resides in the surrounding ether, these unbalanced forces are able to propel the disc or aircraft forward relative to its instantaneous rest frame.  This is a reactionless propulsion that violates both Newton’s third law and the first law of thermodynamics.  In the case of flight in the air, rather than in vacuum environments, repulsive electrostatic forces which the trailing emitted ions exert on the disc or wing also aid in propelling the disc or craft forward.  Since a gravitational force automatically accompanies the electric field, electrogravitic forces also play a role in this overunity propulsion.

So again we find that field interactions are responsible for the excess energy generated by this technology.  As in the other technologies, we may say that this energy is spontaneously generated, hence genic energy.  Keep in mind that the physical universe is a minor epiphenomenon on the surface of the higher dimensional ether.  The highest field potential energy or gamma ray photon energy that can practically be imagined would result in a change of the X or Y ether concentration values that is millions of times smaller than the absolute value of those ether concentrations.  So all overunity energy phenomena that happen in our physical world are still small potatoes compared to the activity that proceeds down under.

Gravity impulse beam.  By discharging 2 million volts of charge through a 10 centimeter diameter superconductor disc to a cathode, Russian inventor/physicist Eugene Podkletnov has produced a beam-like gravity impulse wave that has been found to exert its repulsive effects over hundreds of kilometers distance.  When one adds up the kinetic energy produced by the gravity impulse acting over its 200 kilometer distance of travel, one finds that it exceeds by many, many orders of magnitude the million joules of electric power initially consumed to create the pulse.

The electrostatic pendulum research of Townsend Brown has shown that electrostatic potentials do produce gravitational effects, a finding predicted by subquantum kinetics.  In Podkletnov’s device, the electron carriers of the pulse stop at the cathode, but the gravitational wave that was traveling along with the discharge keeps on going.  Here again, we find that when properly deployed, electric and gravitational fields can be made to generate enormous energy outputs.


This brief analysis fails to cover the many overunity technologies, such as hydrogen gas generation, inertial propulsion, and many others that are today being developed in the research laboratory and marketplace.  Nevertheless the underlying message for all overunity technologies is that their violation of the energy conservation law is something that is not at all surprising once we realize that we live in a physical world that functions as an open system.  In fact these overunity technologies that are becoming almost an everyday occurrence in our rapidly changing world should be regarded as evidence that we do in fact live in an open universe.


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