There was no 1918 Spanish flu: 50-100 million people were exterminated by vaccines and aspirin
Mandated vaccines at the end of the war, forced on soldiers triggered lots of horrible symptoms of all kinds and lots of deaths and it was all blamed on a mysterious flu.
Vaccines and aspirin together didn’t combine to make something new. Vaccines set off symptoms and death, everyone was told there was a flu pandemic, doctors and people used aspirin to try to treat whomever was sick (or scared they were sick) and aspirin is immune suppressant and led to pneumonias and death, or to overdosing with aspirin and death (the “well in the morning, dead by evening” aspect of the deaths said to be a horrifying characteristic of the mysterious virus).
Some background on the vaccines as well as a look at what Bush did to put the lie of the “1918 pandemic” into consciousness as he set up the whole unconstitutional, non-medical, financially plundering, military pandemic structure now in place. This was the moment it all began.
Saying goodbye to fear of the 1918 flu
And as for aspirin, the first 5 articles about Bayer are about aspirin and pandemics and are relevant right now. The 3rd and 5th are about CDC lies and the Bush’s pandemic laws and the danger from them.
The last 5 articles show the history of Bayer and the broad areas of murder Bayer is involved in.
PART 1: 1918 and Aspirin
Bayer and Death: 1918 and Aspirin
PART 1 OF 5
By J. Holcombe, D. Jacobson, and T. Ruhl
“Farbenfabriken Bayer’s worldwide efforts had left few places lacking aspirin. In the United States, Bayer’s giant factory produced aspirin under “American” management. After Bayer executives were charged with violating the Trading with the Enemies Act in August 1918, advertisements encouraged confidence in aspirin.” Karen Starko
The world has believed for almost a century that a new and virulent virus came out of nowhere worldwide and killed millions in 1918. Two reports, one published in 2008 and the second in 2009, lay that myth to rest for good.
The first report came as a press release on August 19, 2008, from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
“Bacteriologic and histopathologic results from published autopsy series clearly and consistently implicated secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratory–tract bacteria in most influenza fatalities.”
People were killed by common bacteria found in the upper respiratory tract, according to research uncovered by F. William Engdahl:
“The 20 to 40 million deaths worldwide from the great 1918 Influenza Pandemic were NOT due to ‘flu’ or a virus, but to pneumonia caused by massive bacterial infection.”
The NIAID press release did not, however, address what caused the bacterial infections, but research by Dr. Karen Starko does. She implicates aspirin, dovetailing with the NIAID research on pneumonia from massive bacterial infection, and goes further in also explaining the extreme rapidity of death:
“Mortality was driven by 2 overlapping clinical-pathologic syndromes: an early, severe acute respiratory distress (ARDS)-like condition, which was estimated to have caused 10%-15% of deaths (sequential autopsy series are lacking); and a subsequent, aggressive bacterial pneumonia “superinfection,” which was present in the majority of deaths.”
In looking at reports of those who died, two distinct groups became readily apparent to Starko, based on a very distinctive time frame from health to death:
1. People who died of pneumonia from a bacteria infection became sick and things deteriorated at varying rates from there to death; and
2. People who died so astoundingly fast that those deaths became a classic part of the frightening legend of the 1918 “flu” – people perfectly well in the morning and dead within a matter of hours.
In both groups, aspirin is now the likely causative agent.
For the first group, the pneumonias, aspirin suppresses the immune system, allowing bacterial infections to take hold. Doctors at the time were relating pneumonias to the use of aspirin.
“I did not lose a single case of influenza; my death rate in the pneumonias was 2.1%. The salycilates, including aspirin and quinine, were almost the sole standbys of the old school and it was a common thing to hear them speaking of losing 60% of their pneumonias.”
~Dudley A. Williams, MD, Providence, Rhode Island.
“There is one drug which directly or indirectly was the cause of the loss of more lives than was influenza itself. You all know that drug. It claims to be salicylic acid. Aspirin’s history has been printed. Today you don’t know what the sedative action of salicylic acid is. It did harm in two ways. It’s indirect action came through the fact that aspirin was taken until prostration resulted and the patient developed pneumonia.”
~Frank L. Newton, MD, Somerville, Massachusetts
“Three hundred and fifty cases and lost one, a neglected pneumonia that came to me after she had taken one hundred grains of aspirin in twenty-four hours.”
~Cora Smith King, MD, Washington, DC
For the second group which died so precipitously, their symptoms are consistent with aspirin overdose, accompanied by rapid death. Starko explains:
“A report from Camp Dix noted, ‘The disease was a veritable plague. The extraordinary toxicity, the marked prostration, the extreme cyanosis and the rapidity of development stamp this disease as a distinct clinical entity heretofore not fully described.’ Salicylate toxicity is often overlooked because another condition is present, the dose is thought to be trivial, and the symptoms (hyperventilation, vomiting, sweating, headache, drowsiness, confusion, dyspnea, excitement [salicylate jag], epistaxis, vertigo, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage) are nonspecific. In 1918, differentiating progressive salicylate intoxication from infection pathologically or clinically, ‘the dyspnea lasts from a few hours to a day…followed by respiratory failure, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and death’, was almost impossible….
“In summary, just before the 1918 death spike, aspirin was recommended in regimens now known to be potentially toxic and to cause pulmonary edema and may therefore have contributed to overall pandemic mortality and several of its mysteries. Young adult mortality may be explained by willingness to use the new, recommended therapy and the presence of youth in regimented treatment settings (military). The lower mortality of children may be a result of less aspirin use. The major pediatric text of 1918 recommended hydrotherapy for fever, not salicylate; its 1920 edition condemned the practice of giving ‘coal tar products’ in full doses for reduction of fever…. Varying aspirin use may also contribute to the differences in mortality between cities and between military camps.”
The cause of the millions of 1918 deaths is not just an historic matter. Since that time, medical authorities, international health agencies and governments have attributed the deaths to a frighteningly virulent virus. Their view of 1918 has formed the basis for a great threat — that the world faced future pandemics of equal virulence, capable of killing millions.
Agencies have been created, international plans have been developed, andpandemic emergency laws have been written with military backup included. Billions if not trillions of dollars have been devoted to finding a vaccine to protect the world from a recurrence of the 1918 Spanish flu.
Yet NIAID has said there is no evidence of a flu and that common respiratory bacteria was responsible. Starko’s work supports that and offers a scientific perspective on how aspirin was the likely cause of the two types of deaths seen during 1918, one slow and one incredibly rapid.
Meanwhile, the government, the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization treat the rapid deaths as one of the frightening characteristics of a “mysterious” virus and proceed with vaccine development.
Given that the millions of 1918 deaths appear related to the pharmaceutical industry panacea of the day (aspirin) mistakenly applied, and that vaccines are the pharmaceutical industry panacea of this day, which would be mandated through pandemic laws, it is essential for the world to become aware of the facts of 1918.
As the next article will show, the massive promotion of aspirin by the confluence of governments, medical authorities and the pharmaceutical industry contributed to the 1918 deaths.
And now governments, medical authorities and the pharmaceutical industry have come together again and are repeating another massive promotion of a product (vaccines) and are even mandating it.
This opens the question of whether a second pharmaceutical industry product (vaccines) poses a second monumental threat to life, rather than a flu which never did.
Bayer and Death Series:
[Addendum: Monsanto was involved in the 1918 deaths. 1917: Bayer, The German competition cut prices in an effort to drive Monsanto out of business, but failed. Soon, Monsanto diversified into phenol (a World War I-era antiseptic), and aspirin when Bayer’s German patent expired in 1917. Monsanto began making aspirin, and soon became the largest manufacturer world-wide.]
Part 2:. Aspirin Killed, Homeopathy Saved
Bayer and Death: Aspirin Killed, Homeopathy Saved
PART 2 OF 5
By J. Holcombe, D. Jacobson, and T. Ruhl
“In February 1917, Bayer lost its American patent on aspirin, opening a lucrative drug market to many manufacturers. Bayer fought back with copious advertising, celebrating the brand’s purity just as the epidemic was reaching its peak.” The New York Times
In Part 1, we revealed that while most believed for 100 years that a flu virus killed millions of people worldwide in 1918, medical forensic research discovered that most died of pneumonia caused by a massive bacterial infection. Here, we discuss how this research also shows that homeopathy saved people’s lives during that time, while aspirin killed them.
Karen Starko’s research shows that “Aspirin advertisements in August 1918 and a series of official recommendations for aspirin in September and early October preceded the death spike of October 1918.”
“The number of deaths in the United increased steeply, peaking first in the Navy in late September, then in the Army in early October, and finally in the general population in late October.”
Of tremendous significance is a single sentence in Starko‘s work.
“Homeopaths, who thought aspirin was a poison, claimed few deaths.”
That sentence stands out against a backdrop of millions of the deaths caused by Bayer and the pharmaceutical industry of the day.
In 2009, The New York Times reported:
“Aspirin packages were produced containing no warnings about toxicity and few instructions about use. In the fall of 1918, facing a widespread deadly disease with no known cure, the surgeon general and the United States Navy recommended aspirin as a symptomatic treatment, and the military bought large quantities of the drug.
“The Journal of the American Medical Association suggested a dose of 1,000 milligrams every three hours, the equivalent of almost 25 standard 325-milligram aspirin tablets in 24 hours. This is about twice the daily dosage generally considered safe today.”
Homeopathy threatened pharmaceutical industry profit. Worse, the homeopathic doctors criticized coal tar based synthetic drugs as a class, the very basis of the pharmaceutical industry.
“Aspirin and the other coal tar products are condemned as causing great numbers of unnecessary deaths. The omnipresent aspirin is the most pernicious drug of all. It beguiles by its quick action of relief of pain, a relief which is but meretricious. In several cases aspirin weakened the heart, depressed the vital forces, increased the mortality in mild cases and made convalescence slower. In all cases it masks the symptoms and renders immeasurably more difficult the selection of the curative remedy. Apparently aspirin bears no curative relation to any disease and it ought to be prohibited.” ~Guy Beckly Stearns, MD, New York
Conversely, using only natural (thus un-patentable) substances, homeopaths saved the lives of almost everyone who came to them during the 1918 calamity. This threatened to expose that the new coal-tar based synthetic drugs (derived from the powerful oil industry), the basis for a giant new investment industry, were in fact disastrous medically. And that had to be stopped.
In The History of the Pharma-Cartel, the Dr. Rath Health Foundation reports that in 1918, “The Rockefeller Foundation [shortly afterwards connected to Bayer] uses the Spanish flu epidemic – and the media (that it already controlled by this time) – to start a witch-hunt on all forms of medicine that were not covered by its patents.”
In his affidavit filed in response to a lawsuit where he was falsely accused of distributing unregistered medicines in South Africa, Dr. Mathias Rath describesThe History of the Pharmaceutical Industry:
“The Rockefeller Foundation was the front organization for a new global business venture…. This new venture was called the pharmaceutical investment business. Donations from the Rockefeller Foundation went only to medical schools and hospitals, which had become missionaries of patented pharmaceutical drugs, developed by a new breed of companies that manufactured patented, synthetic drugs….
“This was also the time, when the first vitamins were discovered. It soon became clear that these natural molecules had life-saving health benefits and were able to prevent many chronic health problems….
“These newly discovered natural molecules had only one disadvantage: they were non-patentable. Thus, already in its first decades of existence, the pharmaceutical investment business faced a mortal threat: vitamins and other micronutrients promoted as public health programmes would have prohibited the development of any sizable investment business based on patented synthetic drugs. The elimination of this unwanted competition from micronutrients and other natural therapies became a question of survival for the young pharmaceutical investment business.
“To promote public acceptance of his ‘new medicine’ as the philanthropic umbrella of the newly created pharmaceutical investment industry with patented drugs – the Rockefeller controlled media used the Spanish flu epidemic of 1918, to start a campaign against all forms of non-patented medicine and discredit them as ‘unscientific.’ Within the next 15 years essentially all medical schools in the U.S., all influential hospitals and, most significantly, the ‘American Medical Association’ became part of this strategy to align the entire health care sector under the control of the pharmaceutical investment business.”
This witch-hunt, with Bayer in a leading role, has a long and violent history and continues today where the pharmaceutical industry is now moving to draconian measures, with the banning of all herbal remedies across Europe starting May 2011, with efforts to imprison a doctor providing natural cures for brain cancers, the attempt to criminalize homeopaths and all natural practitioners in North Carolina, with banning the mass production of Intravenous Vitamin C (it is a powerfully effective yet gentle treatment for cancer) in December 2010, and a plan in Australia to ban thousands of common garden plants.
Given the pharmaceutical industry’s epic battle against natural remedies, suppressing the truth of 1918 — that the pharmaceutical industry killed millions, and natural healing saved people — becomes paramount.
In Part 3 of this series, we discuss how the Centers for Disease Control promotes anti-viral drugs, and enumerate some effects of its support of the myth of the 1918 flu.
Part 3:. Vaccines and CDC’s Myth of a 1918 Virus
Bayer and Death: Vaccines and CDC’s Myth of a 1918 Virus
PART 3 OF 5
By J. Holcombe, D. Jacobson, and T. Ruhl
“The bird and mammalian species took hold on the earth approximately 65 million years ago, i.e. the same time as the dinosaurs went extinct. So did the flu and other viruses of all the surviving species. Since then, all those viruses have been mating and mutating among themselves without the sky caving in due to any infection. Therefore, any talk of a bird or swine flu pandemic with the probability to kill millions of people is either a purposeful or hallucinogenic nonsense to make profit on the backs of the innocent following.”
~Shiv Chopra, microbiologist, vaccine expert
In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control claimed it had reconstructed the “virulent” 1918 virus:
“CDC researchers and their colleagues have successfully reconstructed the influenza virus that caused the 1918-19 flu pandemic, which killed as many as 50 million people worldwide.”
Whatever the CDC reconstructed, it was not what killed millions of people in 1918-19.
The CDC appears unaware that the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has proven that it was not a virus or flu, but a common upper respiratory bacteria that was transformed into massive infection and then deadly pneumonias by the immune suppressing effect of aspirin.
Aspirin killed people, not a virus.
In 1918, the convergence of a toxic drug, massive corporate advertising, and government, military and medical pressure to use the drug, led to tens of millions of deaths. That combination of groups has come together again, this time behind vaccines.
The question, though, is why are vaccines being promoted at all for a pandemic “like the 1918 flu” since the deaths then were not caused by a flu?
Given that it was common bacteria, the following CDC statements make no sense:
“This report describes the successful reconstruction of the influenza A (H1N1) virus responsible for the 1918 “Spanish flu” pandemic and provides novel information about the properties that contributed to its exceptional virulence….
“The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide, many more than the subsequent pandemics of the 20th century. The biological properties that confer virulence to pandemic influenza viruses were poorly understood. Research to better understand how the individual genes of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus contribute to the disease process could provide important insights into the basis of virulence.”
The CDC is putting out a view of the 1918 deaths which is a complete science fiction. It doesn’t fit with either historical or biologic data. Nor does their “virulent virus” view answer the lingering questions around 1918 – such as why young people died or why people died so quickly. Both are answered by Dr. Karen Starko’s work on aspirin use and overdose during 1918.
Though no virus was responsible for the deaths, the CDC has another problem. There has been no evidence showing the reconstruction of the virus, either. German virologist Stefan Lanka points to the source of the story on reconstruction and to missing pieces in the virus, in this 2005 interview:
“Dr Jeffery Taubenberger, from whom the allegation of a reconstruction of the 1918 pandemic virus originates, works for the US-American army and has worked for more than 10 years on producing, on the basis of samples from different human corpses, short pieces of gene substance by means of the biochemical multiplication technique PCR. Out of the multitude of produced pieces he has selected those which came closest to the model of the genetic substance of the idea of an influenza virus, and has published these.
“In no corpse however was a virus seen or isolated or was a piece of gene substance from a such isolated. By means of the PCR technique there were produced out of nothing pieces of gene substance whose earlier existence in the corpse could not be demonstrated.
“If viruses had been present, then these could have been isolated, and out of them their gene substance could have been isolated too; there would have been no necessity for anyone to produce laboriously, by means of PCR technique – with clearly a swindle intention – a patchwork quilt of a model of the genetic substance of the idea of an influenza virus.”
The interviewer then asked how a layman could check this, to which he replied:
“About these short pieces of gene substance, which in the sense of genetics are not complete and which do not even suffice for defining a gene, it is being maintained that they together would make up the entire gene substance of an influenza virus.
“In order to see through this swindle, one only has to be able to add up the published length pieces in order to ascertain that the sum of the lengths of the individual pieces, which supposedly makes up the entire viral gene substance of the purported influenza virus, does not make up the … genome of the influenza virus model.
“Even simpler it is to ask in what publication you can find the electron microscope photo of this supposedly reconstructed virus. There is no such publication.”
In not dealing with either the bacterial infection or the role of aspirin in causing the 1918 deaths, and by continuing the “virulent virus myth,” the CDC is promoting the need for anti-viral drugs (which it mentions by name), as well as the development of vaccines, yet none of them would be appropriate for dealing with what killed people during 1918.
The CDC continues in its false promotion of 1918 deaths being flu related, and ignores common respiratory bacteria that NIAID showed was the source, and the global medical blunder of using toxic aspirin:
“Are current antivirals and vaccines effective against the 1918 virus?
“Yes. Two types of antiviral drugs, rimantadine (Flumadine) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu), have been shown to be effective against influenza viruses similar to the 1918 virus. Vaccines containing the 1918 HA or other subtype H1 HA proteins were effective in protecting mice against the 1918 virus. In fact, the current influenza vaccine provided some level of protection against the 1918 virus in mice.
“Are new prophylactics and therapeutics against the 1918 virus under way?
“The reconstruction of the 1918 virus will enable CDC to pursue development of a vaccine candidate reference virus that would provide optimal protection against this or similar viruses.”
The CDC’s characterization of 1918 as a time when a virulent virus threatened all humanity is patently untrue. That false view was used by George Bush to engender terror that a new virulent virus – related to the 1918 virus – was going to occur and kill millions again.
Why does the CDC persist in this myth despite evidence to the contrary? Eschewing motives, one might only suggest some effects of projecting the terrifying myth that millions of people could die from the virus:
…1. Distraction from the hard reality that natural treatments were the only
……. effective treatments during 1918;
…2. Cloaking of Bayer, aspirin and the industry’s role in the
…3. Sales of billions in anti-viral drugs and vaccine development;
…4. Increased financial power to the pharmaceutical industry to control media
……. and influence government;
…5. Increased illnesses and deaths from chemical pharmaceutical agents, one of
……. the highest risk factors;
…6. Fearful dependence on “expert medical authority” and complex expensive
……. “solutions” to save people;
…7. Surrender of unlimited authority to government regulatory agencies to
……. “protect” the public from natural products; VIDEO
…8. Use of the specter of millions of deaths as the justification for the
……. removal of human rights to “protect” the public;
…9. Enhancement of the pharmaceutical industry moves toward an uncontested
……. global monopoly over health (life and death);
…10. Industrialization, commercialization, and militarization of “disease”; and
…11. An open door to use of “pandemic emergency” to justify martial law.
The truth — that medical authorities using Bayer aspirin (and generic aspirin) killed so many millions of people that those deaths became one the most terrifying events in human history — fundamentally threatens a global multi-trillion dollar investment industry built around unquestioned “medical expertise” and their use of synthetic drugs.
But the fuller truth contains something more dire for the pharmaceutical industry than “only” the millions of deaths they caused because something else of great significance happened then as well – non-industrial medicine, those using organic substances, saved people from death.
1918 set up a global test comparing millions of people, those who were treated by industrial medicine and those treated by organic medicine. The first group died in unfathomable numbers. Nearly all of the second group lived.
That reality shines out from 1918, focusing the world’s attention backwards historically to the rise of the synthetic chemical pharmaceutical industry where once humanity had only used nature.
What stands out is the failure and toxicity of one of the industry’s oldest and most trusted products – aspirin – to a calamitous degree. Add to that Bayer’s global advertising of its toxic product, and government and media influence, and they combined to increase the loss of life to a level never seen before.
Bayer’s product produced so many millions of deaths that it competes with the black plague in number of deaths – 20 to 50 million deaths during 1918 and 1919 versus 25 to 75 million during the course of many years of the Bubonic Plague.
But that single synthetic pharmaceutical product has by now far outstripped the number of deaths of the most infamous disease in history since, as a later section on Bayer will show, the deaths have not stopped even up to today and are of epidemic proportions.
Natural health practitioners are the ones who saved lives during 1918 while aspirin killed. Today the government, under influence from Bayer and other pharmaceutical companies, is suppressing access to natural health products which have no lethality and saved lives during 1918, in favor of predictably lethal vaccines, the need for which is based on an extremely misdirecting myth – blaming a flu (or virus) that was not the cause.
Beyond the deaths Bayer caused with its aspirin, in the 1980s, it knowingly “sold millions of dollars of blood-clotting medicine for hemophiliacs – medicine that carried a high risk of transmitting AIDS,” reported the Sydney Morning Heraldback in 2003. The medicine was developed from HIV-infected plasma donors. “As a result, thousands of hemophiliacs became infected with HIV,” CBS advised in 2009. Here’s a less forgiving MSNBC news video on the matter.
In light of the millions of 1918 deaths from Bayer’s invention of aspirin (a coal tar-based synthetic) and now Bayer’s synthetic vaccines (potentially contaminated with anything), an automatic reassessment of natural versus synthetic treatments is triggered.
Life or death is at stake for humanity in that reassessment.
Part 4:. Aspirin Deaths Continue Beyond 1918
Bayer and Death: Aspirin Deaths Continue Beyond 1918
PART 4 OF 5
A confluence of events created a “perfect storm” for widespread salicylate toxicity. The loss of Bayer’s patent on aspirin in February 1917 allowed many manufacturers into the lucrative aspirin market. Official recommendations for aspirin therapy at toxic doses were preceded by ignorance of the unusual nonlinear kinetics of salicylate (unknown until the 1960s), which predispose to accumulation and toxicity; tins and bottles that contained no warnings and few instructions; and fear of “Spanish” influenza, an illness that had been spreading like wildfire. ~Dr. Karen Starko
Given the role that it played in the millions of 1918 deaths, a further look at aspirin is in order.
Bayer aspirin was one of the earliest of drugs from the pharmaceutical industry, dependent on the oil industry, and has become the most commonly used and trusted drug. As such, it exemplifies the displacement of natural treatments by synthetic drugs.
Is Bayer aspirin safe today?
During 1918, repeatedly, first hand medical accounts point to aspirin as the source of pneumonias. In collecting these accounts, Julian Winston notes in 1998: “In reading the accounts of the epidemic it seems that most of the deaths were caused by a virulent pneumonia that was especially devastating to those who depressed their system with analgesics – the most common being aspirin.”
Here’s one of the accounts he reproduced:
“I had a package handed to me containing 1,000 aspirin tablets, which was 994 too many. I think I gave about a half dozen. I could find no place for it. My remedies were few. I almost invariably gave Gelsemium and Bryonia. I hardly ever lost a case if I got there first, unless the patient had been sent to a drug store and bought aspirin, in which event I was likely to have a case of pneumonia on my hands.” -J. P. Huff, MD, Olive Branch, Kentucky.
Winston adds, “The Physician from whom I first learned homeopathy, Raymond Seidel, MD, HMD, said that he decided to be a homeopathic doctor during the flu epidemic when he was working as a delivery boy for a homeopath in New Jersey. Raymond Seidel told me that he decided to become a homeopathic doctor when he was a ten-year old delivery boy for a local homeopath.” Seidel told him:
“I saw that the people who were taking aspirin were dying, about half those who were drinking a lot were dying, and those that received homeopathic remedies were living.”
Aspirin was the first of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, the others not available until 1955 when Tylenol was first marketed. They are the most commonly used drug on the market, sold over the counter and by prescription.
For Bayer and the pharmaceutical industry, they are the unquestioned basics of their industry.
Yet they all routinely kill.
Citing articles from various medical journals in his landmark report from 2002, Toxic and Deadly NSAIDs, an Investigative Report, Roman Bystrianyk summarizes:
“Over 100,000 people are hospitalized for GI bleeding and of those 16,500 die every year. And these values are considered ‘conservative.’
“Also the figures only include prescription NSAIDs used to treat only arthritis and only in the United States. If prescription and over the counter NSAID-related hospitalizations and death rates were counted for not only arthritis, but for all conditions, and throughout the world, the figures would no doubt be enormous. Taking those figures and applying them over the many years that this class of drug that has been available since the early 1970s and the numbers would be horrific. And yet, no study to date has attempted to quantify these figures.”
He then reposts a graph from The New England Journal of Medicine article by M. Wolfe, et al., “Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs”, (June 17, 1999, Vol. 340, No. 24, pp. 1888-1889), which shows this alarming statistic relative to other causes of deaths:
Aspirin, the first of this class of drugs, has existed since the 1800s. How many people has it alone killed?
Another useful graph compares “yearly estimated NSAID deaths since 1991 with the number of murders committed with firearms each year in the United States and with the number of U.S. Forces killed in Vietnam if that war was being fought in the 1990s instead of 1961-1972,” Bystrianyk writes:
The graph assumes a linear increase in the number of NSAID deaths; the actual numbers are unknown. But, Bystrianyk repeats that the “16,500 NSAID deaths per year is considered conservative” since it does not include over the counter medications or prescriptions for conditions other than arthritis.
“Another important observation is that most people have no warning signs that these drugs are causing them internal damage before ending up in the hospital with a serious medical condition. And as we have seen from the statistics, approximately 10% of these hospitalizations end in death….
“Even aspirin, the first NSAID that was synthesized over 100 years ago by Felix Hoffman at Bayer industries is not free of risk. And considering that aspirin is being highly recommended to reduce the incidence of heart disease we must consider the gastrointestinal damage being caused as well.”
Bystrianyk then quotes J. Weil, et al., from their 2005 British Medical Journal article entitled, “Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding”:
“We found that no particular dose of aspirin between 75 mg and 300 mg daily currently used in cardiovascular prophylaxis is free of risk of causing bleeding from gastric or duodenal ulcers. Even very low (75 mg) doses of aspirin reportedly caused gastric bleeding in volunteers. … Some 10,000 episodes of ulcer bleeding occur in people aged 60 and over each year in England and Wales. … It [sic] may be deduced that 900 of the 10,000 episodes could be associated with and ascribed to prophylactic aspirin use. A general change to low doses (75 mg) of aspirin would not eliminate the risk….” [Emphasis added]
Making matters worse, Bystrianyk writes:
“Unfortunately the risk of hospitalization and death is not the only possibility from taking these types of drugs. Other studies also indicate that the risk of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) while using NSAIDs is also quite substantial. One author suggested that the number of deaths could be similar to those that are being seen with gastrointestinal bleeding. If so the numbers of deaths attributed to NSAIDs would increase dramatically from the already large figure of 16,500.”
His source is J. Page and D. Henry from their March 2000 article in the Archives of Internal Medicine, “Consumption of NSAIDs and the Development of Congestive Heart Failure in Elderly Patients”:
“In this study we found that recent use of NSAIDs by elderly patients doubles the odds of being admitted to hospital with an episode of CHF [Congestive Heart Failure]. The estimated relative risk for first admission with heart failure, and the risk of this outcome was increased substantially by NSAID use in those with a history of heart disease.… Assuming the association between use of NSAIDs and CHF is unconfounded, the disease burden attributable to these drugs may be large – approaching the levels of morbidity and mortality that we have previously documented for serious upper gastrointestinal complications of NSAID use in NSW [New South Wales].”
The following statement Bystrianyk made about all NSAIDS (including Bayer aspirin) could as easily characterize what happened during 1918, including the complete silence surrounding Bayer’s drug – aspirin (and the generic versions) – that is now implicated in killing millions of people during 1918.
“NSAIDs are truly a silent epidemic that have caused a tremendous amount of pain and death. Public knowledge of this tragedy is virtually non-existent with an enormous amount of information written primarily existing within the sanctuary of medical libraries. Pharmaceutical companies still market and promote worldwide sales of these toxic substances and governmental agencies have done nothing of any substance to alert the public.”
Of course, research continues to expose the hazards of NSAIDS. One site that tracks current research is Pain-Topics.org. In May of this year, Stewart B. Leavitt, MA, PhD,wrote, “Results of the new research suggest that even short-term use of these pain relievers is unsafe for [heart attack] patients with pain.” In that piece he also mentions adverse effects on the liver, as well as the heart.
Given all the information presented so far in this series, a set of questions arises as to Bayer’s culpability and influence over regulators. In the next and final installment, we pose those questions.
Part 5:. A New Set of Questions about 1918 and Bush’s Pandemic laws
Bayer and Death: A New Set of Questions about 1918
PART 5 OF 5
By J. Holcombe, D. Jacobson, and T. Ruhl
Without question, the 20 to 50 million deaths during the 1918-19 “flu” epidemic represent the greatest iatrogenic catastrophe in human history.
The attribution of those deaths to a virulent new virus has been debunked by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which said that common upper respiratory bacteria were responsible. Aspirin, heavily marketed and medically recommended, suppressed the immune system and led to massive infection resulting in pneumonia and death.
The central role that aspirin played in those deaths contrasts sharply with the survival of those who avoided it in favor of natural treatments. Aspirin, not a virus, created a pharmaceutical industry calamity.
It also created the largest industrial catastrophe in history, with no industrial disasters even approaching the death count – far outstripping the number of deaths from Chernobyl, Bhopal, or even projected deaths from Fukishima. The number of deaths has only been approached by deaths from WWII, to which Bayer also contributed.
While 1918 exposes the extreme toxicity of Bayer’s central drug, aspirin, it reveals something more profound – the abject failure of the coal-tar based synthetic drug industry to treat disease.
With this information, a new series of questions arise – no longer medical ones but ones of power and profit.
1. Bayer was a leading German pharmaceutical company. Soldiers who had won a war against the Germans and escaped death, died after the war in even greater numbers. When they came home, the public in their home countries began to die as well. Is it reasonable to suggest that the Germans, through Bayer and its heavily advertised product, literally continued killing their enemies?
2. Twenty years after Bayer contributed to the largest number of deaths by disease (20 to 50 million) in human history, Bayer was a primary funder of Hitler, helped run the basic operations of the war, including the concentration camps, and in causing WWII and slaughtering and experimenting on people during the Holocaust, was responsible for the deaths of 50- 70 million people. Was Bayer a financial backer of the German military during WWI as well?
3. How many of the 20 to 50 million deaths in 1918 stem from Bayer aspirin and Bayer’s actions, including its heavy advertising of aspirin?
4. Did Bayer influence the official recommendations for aspirin therapy which came from the Surgeon General, the Navy and the American Medical Association?
5. Did Bayer know its aspirin was toxic and hide the information? If so, were warnings or dosages not included in order to sell more aspirin? Was 1918 a Bayer medical scandal as well?
6. Did Bayer make any efforts – through its advertising or influence with government and the military or through financial arrangements or in any other way – to promote or even ensure the use of aspirin (in military settings, for instance), or to generate greater fear of the Spanish flu, in order to sell more of its lethal product? Was 1918 a Bayer financial scandal as well?
7. Has Bayer done anything since 1918 to cover up its role in what happened during 1918, and to promote the myth, instead, of a deadly new virulent virus as mass killer?
8. Was Bayer involved in putting Bush into office, and/or in writing the “pandemic martial laws” which remove all human and constitutional rights, which states adopted based on the virus myth, or in paying for lobbying for them?
9. Was Bayer involved in designing and/or writing the Food Safety Modernization Act which can be used to destroy supplement companies and practitioners or any of the four other bills to accomplish the same, or in the EU banning of all herbal remedies, or in the Australian plan to ban thousands of plants, or in the removal of supplements from shelves in Canada?
10. How many people have died from aspirin since 1918 and how much money has Bayer made from aspirin since that time? Has Bayer been involved in preventing any FDA investigations into deaths from NSAIDs?
11. Flu was not the cause of the 1918 deaths. While this article has focused on medical evidence indicating that aspirin overdose is the most reasonable explanation for the terrifying rapid deaths and aspirin use appears responsible for the massive bacterial infections that led to lethal pneumonias, there is a first cause before aspirin itself – Bayer’s desire for profit. As millions of people died, how much money did Bayer make during the 1918-19 “flu”?
Those questions are the new questions surrounding 1918 and they need to be answered.
Part 6: Bayer and WWII
The History of the “Business With Disease”
|“Compared to the reality of the drug industry, my book reads like a vacation post card”
John Le Carre, Author
The most powerful German economic corporate emporium in the first half of this century was the Interessengemeinschaft Farben or IG Farben, for short. Interessengemeinschaft stands for “Association of Common Interests” and was nothing more than a powerful cartel of BASF, Bayer, Hoechst, and other German chemical and pharmaceutical companies. IG Farben was the single largest donor to the election campaign of Adolph Hitler. One year before Hitler seized power, IG Farben donated 400,000 marks to Hitler and his Nazi party. Accordingly, after Hitler’s seizure of power, IG Farben was the single largest profiteer of the German conquest of the world, the Second World War.
- The Birth of I.G. Farben and the Support for Hitler
- I.G. Farben and the Auschwitz Concentration Camp
- Medical Experiments in Auschwitz Conducted by I.G. Farben
- The Nuremberg War Tribunal
- The Disgraced Managers of I.G. Farben
- From “Arbeit macht frei” to “Codex Alimentarius”
One hundred percent of all explosives and of all synthetic gasoline came from the factories of IG Farben. Whenever the German Wehrmacht conquered another country, IG Farben followed, systematically taking over the industries of those countries. Through this close collaboration with Hitler’s Wehrmacht, IG Farben participated in the plunder of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, France and all other countries conquered by the Nazis.
The U.S. government’s investigation of all the factors leading to the Second World War in 1946 came to the conclusion that without IG Farben the Second World War would simply not have been possible. We have to come to grips with the fact that it was not the psychopath, Adolph Hitler, or bad genes of the German people that brought about the Second World War. Economic greed by companies like Bayer, BASF and Hoechst was the key factor in bringing about the Holocaust.
No one who saw Steven Spielberg’s film “Schindler’s List” will forget the scenes in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Birth of IG Farben and the Support for Hitler
(from the book “Sword And Swastika” by Telford Taylor)
After the First World War, all the major chemical concerns were merged into a single gigantic trust in 1926 – the I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. – under the leadership of Carl Duisberg and Carl Bosch. Dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, photographic supplies, explosives, and a myriad of other products poured forth in ever-growing volume and variety.
Soon after the election of July, 1932, in which the Nazis had doubled their vote, Heinrich Buetefisch [chief of the I.G. Farben – Leuna plant] and Heinrich Gattineau [a Farben official who was also an SA officer and personally known to both Rudolf Hess and Ernst Roehm]. waited upon the Fuehrer-to-be to learn whether Farben could count on governmental support for its synthetic gasoline program in the event the Nazis should attain power. Hitler readily agreed that Farben should be given the necessary support to warrant expansion of the Leuna plant.
After the seizure of power, Farben lost no time following up this auspicious introduction. Significantly, Farben’s chosen channel was not the ‘Heeresleitung’ but Hermann Goering’s new Air Ministry. In a long letter to Goering’s deputy Erhard Milch, Carl Krauch of Farben outlined a “four-year plan” for the expansion of synthetic fuel output. Thereupon, Milch called in Generalleutnant von Vollard Bockelberg, Chief of the Army Ordnance Office, and it was agreed that the Army and the Air Ministry would together sponsor the Krauch project. A few months later Farben received a formal Reich contract calling for the enlargement of Leuna so that production would reach three hundred thousand tons per year by 1937, with Farben’s sales guaranteed for ten years – until June 30, 1944 – on a cost-plus basis.
1941: I.G. Farben’s “friendship” with the SS helps to increase the speed of construction of Auschwitz-Buna against the resistance “of some little bureaucrats”.A letter from Dr. Otto Ambros to the Director of I.G. Farben Frankfurt, Fritz ter Meer
I.G. Farben and the Auschwitz Concentration Camp
Auschwitz was the largest mass extermination factory in human history, but the concentration camp was only an appendix.
The main project was IG Auschwitz, a 100% subsidiary of IG Farben, the largest industrial complex of the world for manufacturing synthetic gasoline and rubber for the conquest of Europe .
On April 14, 1941 , in Ludwigshafen , Otto Armbrust, the IG Farben board member responsible for the Auschwitz project, stated to his IG Farben board colleagues, “our new friendship with the SS is a blessing. We have determined all measures integrating the concentration camps to benefit our company.”
The pharmaceutical departments of the IG Farben cartel used the victims of the concentration camps in their own way: thousands of them died during human experiments such as the testing of new and unknown vaccines.
There was no retirement plan for the prisoners of IG Auschwitz. Those who were too weak or too sick to work were selected at the main gate of the IG Auschwitz factory and sent to the gas chambers. Even the chemical gas Zyklon-B used for the annihilation of millions of people was derived from the drawing boards and factories of IG Farben.
The map of Auschwitz (above) speaks for itself. The size of the IG Auschwitz plant (red area) was larger than all Auschwitz concentration camps (blue area) taken together.
Medical Experiments in Auschwitz Conducted by I.G. Farben
(from the book “I.G. Farben – from Anilin to forced labor” by Jörg Hunger and Paul Sander)
Scientific experiments were also done in other concentration camps. A decisive fact is that IG employee SS major Dr. med. Helmuth Vetter, stationed in several concentration camps, participated in these experiments by order of Bayer Leverkusen.
At the same time as Dr. Joseph Mengele, experimented in Auschwitz with medications that were designated “B-1012″, B-1034″, “3382” or “Rutenol”. The test preparations were not only applied to those prisoners who were ill, but also to healthy ones. These people were first infected on purpose through pills, powdered substances, injections or enemas. Many of the medications caused the victims to vomit or have bloody diarrhoea. In most cases the prisoners died as a result of the experiments.
In the Auschwitz files correspondence was discovered between the camp commander and Bayer Leverkusen. It dealt with the sale of 150 female prisoners for experimental purposes: “With a view to the planned experiments with a new sleep-inducing drug we would appreciate it if you could place a number of prisoners at our disposal (…)” – “We confirm your response, but consider the price of 200 RM per woman to be too high. We propose to pay no more than 170 RM per woman. If this is acceptable to you, the women will be placed in our possession. We need some 150 women (…)” – “We confirm your approval of the agreement. Please prepare for us 150 women in the best health possible (…)” – “Received the order for 150 women. Despite their macerated condition they were considered satisfactory. We will keep you informed of the developments regarding the experiments (…)” – “The experiments were performed. All test persons died. We will contact you shortly about a new shipment (…)”
A former Auschwitz prisoner testified: “There was a large ward of tuberculars on block 20. The Bayer Company sent medications in unmarked and unnamed ampoules. The tuberculars were injected with this. These unfortunate people were never killed in the gas chambers. One only had to wait for them to die, which did not take long (…) 150 Jewish women that had been bought from the camp attendant by Bayer, (…) served for experiments with unknown hormonal preparations.”
Parallel to the tests by Behringwerke and Bayer Leverkusen the chemical-pharmaceutical and serologic-bacteriological department at Hoechst started experimenting on Auschwitz prisoners with their new typhus fever preparation “3582”. The first series of tests had results that were far from satisfactory. Of the 50 test persons 15 died; the typhus fever drug led to vomiting and exhaustion. Part of the Auschwitz concentration camp was quarantined, which led to an extension of the tests to the concentration camp in Buchenwald . In the journal of the “Department for typhus fever and viral research of the concentration camp Buchenwald” we find on January 10th, 1943: “As suggested by the IG Farbenindustrie A.G. the following were tested as typhus fever medications: a) preparation 3582 <Akridin> of the chem. pharm. and sero-bact. Department Hoechst – Prof. Lautenschläger and Dr. Weber – (therapeutic test A), b) methylene blue, formerly tested on mice by Prof. Kiekuth, Elberfeld (therapeutic test M).”
The first and also the second series of therapeutic tests, held in Buchenwald between March 31st and April 11th 1943 , were negative due to insufficient contamination of the tested prisoners. Neither did the experiments in Auschwitz show evident successes.
The scientific value of all these experiments, whether ordered by the IG Farben or not, was in fact zero. The test persons were in bad physical condition, caused by forced labor, insufficient and wrong nutrition and diseases in the concentration camp. In addition to this there were generally bad sanitary circumstances in the laboratories. “The test results in the concentration camps, as the IG laboratory specialists should have known, could not be compared to results made under normal circumstances”.
The SS physician Dr. Hoven testified to this during the Nuremberg Trial: “It should be generally known, and especially in German scientific circles, that the SS did not have notable scientists at its disposal. It is clear that the experiments in the concentration camps with IG preparations only took place in the interests of the IG, which strived with all means to determine the effectiveness of these preparations. They let the SS deal with the – shall I say – dirty work in the concentration camps. It was not the IG’s intention to make any of this public, but rather to put up a smoke screen around the experiments so that (…) they could keep any profits to themselves. Not the SS but the IG took the initiative for the concentration camp experiments.”
A letter from 1944 in which I.G. Farben orders an “harsh punishment” for a slave laborer in Auschwitz-Monowitz.
The Nuremberg War Tribunal
The Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal convicted 24 IG Farben board members and executives on the basis of mass murder, slavery and other crimes against humanity. Amazingly however, by 1951 all of them had already been released, continuing to consult German corporations. The Nuremberg Tribunal dissolved the IG Farben into Bayer, Hoechst, and BASF.
Today each of the three daughters of the IG Farben is 20 times bigger than IG Farben was at its height in 1944, the last year of the Second World War.
More importantly, for almost three decades after the Second World War, BASF, Bayer and Hoechst (now Aventis) each filled its highest position, chairman of the board, with former members of the Nazi, NSDAP:
- Carl Wurster, chairman of the board of BASF until 1974 was, during the war, on the board of the company manufacturing Zyklon-B gas
- Carl Winnacker, chairman of the board of Hoechst until the late 70’s, was a member of the Sturm Abteilung (SA) and was a member of the board of IG Farben
- Curt Hansen, chairman of the board of Bayer until the late 70’s, was co-organizer of the conquest of Europe in the department of “acquisition of raw materials.” Under this leadership the IG Farben daughters, BASF, Bayer, and Hoechst, continued to support politicians representing their interests.
During the 50’s and 60’s they invested in the political career of a young representative from a suburb of the BASF town of Ludwigshafen , his name: Helmut Kohl.
From 1957 to 1967 the young Helmut Kohl was a paid lobbyist of the “Verband Chemischer Industrie,” the central lobby organization of the German pharmaceutical and chemical cartel. Thus, the German chemical and pharmaceutical industry advanced one of its own as a political representative, leaving the German people with only the choice of final approval.
The result is well known: Helmut Kohl was chancellor of Germany for 16 years and the German pharmaceutical and chemical industry became the world’s leading exporter of chemical products, with subsidiaries in over 150 countries, more than IG Farben ever had. Several billion people will now die prematurely, if the pharmaceutical industry gets its way. Germany is the only country in the entire world in which a former paid lobbyist for the chemical and pharmaceutical cartel was head of the government. To sum up, the support of German politics for the global expansion plans of the German pharmaceutical and chemical companies has a 100-year-old tradition.
From knowing this, we understand the support from Bonn for the unethical plans of the Codex Commission. (Remark made by the Dr. Rath Health Foundation)
The U.S. lead prosecutor in the Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal against the IG Farben anticipated this development when he said, “These IG Farben criminals, not the lunatic Nazi fanatics, are the main war criminals. If the guilt of these criminals is not brought to light and if they are not punished, they will represent a much greater threat to the future peace of the world than Hitler if he were still alive.”
The Disgraced Managers of IG Farben
Fritz ter Meer (1884-1967)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1926-1945, member of the working committee and the technical committee, director of section II
- 1943 plenipotentiary for Italy of the Reich Minister for armaments and war production, military economist chief industrialist responsible for Auschwitz .
- 1948 found guilty of “plundering” and “enslavement” and condemned to seven years detention. Released 1952.
- 1955 board member of Bayer
- 1956-1964 chairman of the board of Bayer chairman of the board of Th. Goldschmidt AG, deputy chairman of the board of Commerzbank, Bank-Association AG, board member of the Waggonfabrik Uerdingen, the Duesseldorfer waggonfabrik AG, the bank association West Germany AG and the United Industrial enterprises AG (VIAG)
Otto Ambros (1901-1990):
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1938-1945, member of the chemical committee and chairman of commission K (agents), special advisors of Krauchs F+E department for the four-year plan, director of the special committee C (chemical agents), the main committee for powders and explosives in the office for arms, military industrial leader
- Responsible for choice of location, planning, building and running of IG Auschwitz as operations manager. Managing director of the Buna-Works and synthetic fuel production
- 1945 knight’s cross and Distinguished Service Cross
- 1948 found guilty of “enslavement” condemned to eight years detention.
- Released 1952.
- Starting in 1954 chairman, deputy chairmen and member of the boards of: Chemie Grünenthal, Pintsch Bamag AG, Knoll AG, Feldmühle Papier- und Zellstoffwerke, Telefunken GmbH, Grünzweig & Hartmann, Internationale Galalithgesellschaft, Berliner Handelsgesellschaft, Süddeutsche Kalkstickstoffwerke, Vereinigte Industrieunternehmungen (VIAG) with its subsidiaries Scholven-Chemie and Phenol-Chemie as an advisor to F. K. Flick und of the US Industrialist J.P. Grace is entangled in the early eighties in the “Flick scandal”
Hermann Schmitz (1881-1960)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1926-1935, chairman of the board 1935-1945 and “head of finances” to the IG
- Head of military economics, member of the Nazi party (NSDAP)
- 1941 Distinguished Service Cross 1st. Class
- 1948 found guilty of “plundering” condemned to four years in prison. Released 1950.
- 1952 board member of the German bank Berlin West
- 1956 honorary chairman of the board of Rheinish steel plants.
Fritz Gajewski (1888-1962)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1931-1945, head of section III (point of contact to Dynamite Nobel)
- At Nuremberg , found “not guiltily” for all charges
- 1949 managing director, 1952 chairman of the board of Dynamite Nobel AG
- 1953 Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 1957 retirement, honorary chairman of the board of Dynamite Nobel AG, chairman of the board of Genschow & Co. and the Chemie-Verwaltungs AG, board member of Huels AG and the Gelsenkirchener mines
Heinrich Buetefisch (1894-1969)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1934-1945, deputy director of section I, director of gasoline synthesis for IG Auschwitz
- 1932 (together with Gattineau) had the conversation with Hitler, that defined the petrol pact, 1936 co-worker of Krauch on the four year plan as a production representative for oil in the Arms Ministry
- SS Obersturmbannführer, military industrial leader, awarded the “friend of the Reich leader SS” cross.
- 1948 found guilty of “enslavement” condemned to six years detention.
- Released 1951.
- 1952 supervisory board member of Ruhr-Chemie and Kohle-Öl-Chemie among others.
- 1964 Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany. The award was taken back after 16 days due to violent protests
Friedrich Jaehne (1879-1965)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1934-1945, chief engineer of the IG, deputy director of the BG central Rhine/Maingau
- 1943 head of military economics, Distinguished Service Cross 1st. Class 1948 found guilty of “plundering” condemned to 18 months detention
- 1955 supervisory board member of the “new” Farbwerke Hoechst. In the same year elevated to supervisory board chairman elect – Karl Winnacker said “in the meantime the liquidation conclusion law had been issued and freed us from all discriminating regulations. So we could add Friedrich Jaehne, chief engineer of the old IG, to the supervisory board. He presided over this committee until 1963. In 1945 none of us would have thought that the two of us would be able to co-operate at the head of our company “.
- Supervisory board chairman of the Alfreds Messer GmbH (later Messer Griesheim), supervisory board member with Linde
- 1959 Dr. Ing. E.h. of TH Munich, 1962 Bavarian service medal, honorary senator of TH Munich, Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany
Carl Krauch (1887-1968)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1926-1940, chairman of the board 1940-1945, director of the coordination center W, director of the Reich office for economics, plenipotentiary for special questions on chemical production, military industrial leader.
- 1943 Knight’s Cross for Distinguished War services.
- 1948 found guilty of “enslavement” and condemned to six years in prison. Released 1950.
- 1955 board member of Huels GmbH.
- In 1956 in the Frankfurt Auschwitz court case is quoted as saying: “they were usually anti-social elements, so called political prisoners” (describing the prisoners of Auschwitz-Monowitz)
Carl Wurster (1900-1974)
- Member of the IG FARBEN executive committee 1938-1945, director of BG upper Rhine, board member of DEGESCH
- Head of military economics and member of the military economic advisory council of the Reich chamber of economics
- 1945 Knight’s Cross for Distinguished War Services
- At Nuremberg , found “not guiltily” of all charges
- 1952 chairman of the board of the “new” BASF, chairman of the board for Duisburger Kupferhuette and Robert Bosch AG, board member of Augusts Viktoria, the Buna-Werke Huels GmbH, Süddeutschen Bank, Deutschen Bank, Vereinigten Glanzstoff, BBC, Allianz, Degussa, 1965 retirement as chairman of the board of BASF
- 1952 honorary professor of the University of Heidelberg , Dr. rer. RK h.c. the University of Tübingen , 1953 Dr. Ing. E.h. of the TH Munich, 1955 Distinguished Service Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bayer service medal, 1960 Dr. rer. pole h.c. the University of Mannheim, honorary senator of the Universities of Mainz, Karlsruhe and Tübingen, honorary citizen of the University of Stuttgart, honoury citizen of the city of Ludwigshafen, 1967 Schiller prize of the city of Mannheim, president of the federation of the chemical industry, vice-president of the Max-Planck company, the company of German chemists.
From “Arbeit macht frei” to “Codex Alimentarius”
Just fifteen years after they were convicted in the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal, Bayer, BASF and Hoechst were again the architects of the next major human rights offences. In 1962, they established the Codex Alimentarius Commission. (Remark made by the Dr. Rath Health Foundation)
This dark period of German history is inextricably bound to one man, Fritz ter Meer:
- He was a member of the Managing Board of IG Farben from its inception to its dissolution. As the Wartime Manager, he was responsible for IG Auschwitz.
- In the Nuremberg Tribunal, ter Meer stated: “Forced labor did not inflict any remarkable injury, pain, or suffering on the detainees, particularly since the alternative for these workers would have been death.”
- In 1948, ter Meer was sentenced by the Nuremberg Tribunal to seven years in prison for plundering and slavery.
- In 1952, his sentence was commuted, due to the influence of powerful friends.
- From 1956-1964, he was reinstated as a member of the Managing Board of Bayer AG.
- In 1962, ter Meer was one of the architects of the “Codex Alimentarius – Commission” and one of the main designers of the schemes that would profit from human suffering. (Remark made by the Dr. Rath Health Foundation)
The deceptive title “Codex Alimentarius” is no accident. It was devised by the same companies and indeed the same individuals, who gave the Auschwitz concentration camp inmates the deceptive slogan “Arbeit mach frei” (“Work makes you free”). (Remark made by the Dr. Rath Health Foundation)
As long as the Nazi infection continues to work its influence and threaten the lives of untold millions, no German has the right to proclaim that the Nazi era is finished.
Part 7: Bayer Inherits Nazi funds
POISON FOR PROFIT – WHAT A BUSINESS PLAN!
POISON FOR PROFIT
CHEM/PHARM HAS NO EQUAL – WHAT A BUSINESS PLAN!
By Ashley Simmons Hotz
May 15, 2002 – The huge transnational companies that produce toxic chemicals found in pesticides, herbicides and industrial and household products profit not only from the sale of these products, but also from the symptoms and chronic illnesses that they can trigger.
The vast majority of chemicals found in pesticides and other products, undergo little or no testing for chronic, low level exposures and for chronic health effects.
The same chemical companies that produce toxic chemicals also produce prescription drugs, veterinary medicines, a wide array of medical products and imaging technologies, hold cancer treatment and medical device patents, and a produce a staggering assortment of over-the-counter palliatives.
Families with toxin induced illnesses often spend large sums for drugs and medical treatment.
This circle of profit is not conspiracy theory, but an easily provable fact.
Below are chem/pharm web sites for the largest companies in the world. There you can see quickly and clearly that these companies profit from all sides of the picture.
Aventis was launched in December 1999 through the merger of Hoechst AG of Germany and Rhône-Poulenc SA of France. Main Home Page for Aventis–go to top right and click on “Aventis Worldwide” to see medical, agrochemical and pharmaceutical categories of business.
Aventis “crop sciences” include herbicides, fungicides, pesticides and genetically engineered food.
Aventis Pharma is the pharmaceutical division:
Monsanto is owned by Pharmacia. The Pharmacia Corporation was created through the merger of Pharmacia Upjohn with Monsanto Company and its G.D. Searle unit. Pharmacia employs 59,000 people worldwide and has research, manufacturing and administrative sales operations in more than 60 countries.
BASF-fungicides, herbicides, pesticides:
BASF – pharmaceuticals:
Merck is known widely as a pharmaceutical company
Merck Research Company; Applications to Register Pesticide:
Merck produces chemicals and precursors for pesticides and other neurotoxins.
Merck Chemicals for Industrial Applications – Listed in alphabetical order:
“Our broad range of Chemicals for Industrial Applications is widely used in many fields of production within the chemical and technical industries.”
Dow’s pesticide products include the organophosphate pesticide Dursban (a/k/a Chlorpyrifos/a/k/a RAID a/k/a Lorsban and is found in about 800 other pesticide products). Dursban was to be phased out and banned from indoor, yard and garden use last year because of what it does to the developing brain.
EPA was going to allow Dursban to “continue to be sold until current stocks run out” but Dow has been scrambling to get this delayed, and has been conducting short term clinical trials by feeding Dursban pills to healthy teenagers in an attempt to get it back on the market:
Dupont Chemical recently sold a pharmaceutical division to Bristol Myers Squibb. Dupont makes pesticides and drugs:
Here is a list of other chemicals and neurotoxins that they produce:
Do you take Bayer aspirin? Did you know that Bayer also makes other drugs, pesticides, chemicals? When you get to the Bayer site from the following URL, go to the “application” search engine and scroll down to pesticides. At the first URL here, go to the right side and click on the drop-down list to see the spectrum of products — for industrial chemicals and “crop protection” products, to pharmaceuticals.
It is interesting to note that the Bayer corporation was originally the I.G. Farben Company with deep ties to the Nazis during the 1920s and 30s. I.G. Farben produced Zyklon-B gas which was used in the Nazi death camps. Other big chem/pharm manufacturers became owners of pieces of I.G. Farben during the lengthy process of dissolving its assets after decades of lawsuits and pressures from international organizations for alleged I.G.Farben Nazi crimes. Here is a quote from the BBC:
“Most of the company’s assets were confiscated after World War II and were transferred to four big German corporations: Bayer, Hoechst, Agfa and BASF.”
See BBC article:
Many of these huge transnationals have merged with each other. For example, CibaGeigy, Sandoz and other multinational chemical/pharmaceutical companies merged to become Novartis. Then Novartis Agribusiness merged with Zeneca (Astra-Zeneca) Agrochemicals to form Syngenta:
Standard and Poor’s Stock Exchange profile on Novartis:
Novartis pharmaceuticals, seeds, genetic engineering:
Novartis owns Syngenta — produces pesticides, herbicides, etc:
Novartis AG — incredible list of products, relationships and subsidiaries:
Then there is Astra Zeneca that sold off part of its agrochemical business to Novartis. AstraZeneca. For some listings of its pharmaceuticals:
MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS & SPIN-OFFS IN THE CHEMICALS INDUSTRY 1998 — 2001:
AMVAC makes the insecticide NALED a/k/a DIBROM, and nineteen other products. AMVAC Chemical Company is owned by American Vanguard Corporation, which makes herbicides, pesticides. A major portion of its revenues comes from selling its specialty chemicals to the pharmaceutical industry. It is also in the business of “environmental remediation” and “toxic waste management.” (Like other chem/pharm companies, American Vanguard profits from pollution that they help make, and then get paid to clean up).
AMVAC’s brother subsidiaries include, GemChem, Inc. and Environmental Mediation, Inc.
AMVAC’s brother GemChem: “… committed to exceeding industry standards as a national chemical distributor. In addition to representing AMVAC as its domestic sales force, GemChem also sells into the cosmetic, nutritional and pharmaceutical markets.”
AMVAC’s brother Environmental Mediation, Inc. provides clients with: “complex investigative and remedial activities. With… core expertise in the areas of hazardous waste, air toxics, and water quality…”
Environmental Mediation, Inc. offers its clients expertise in:
American Home Products pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines has subsidiaries galore, including American Cyanimid among others. American Cyanimid produced many chemical products including pesticides and pharmaceutical chemicals.
AHP later changed its name to WYETH, a major holding company:
American Home Products was gobbled up by the chem/pharm giat BASF:
See paragraph nine:
And this just shows the cycle of profit in all of its glory when you see the Chemical Business Research website — Click on: “Code “C4″: Cancer Opportunities in the New Millennium”
Did you know that thousands of toxic chemicals are impregnated into products that we come in intimate contact with every day that have woefully inadequate testing? Synthetic chemicals are found in clothing, furniture, bedding, paper, food storage containers, building materials, pillow feathers, pillow covers, inks, mattresses, food, cosmetics, carbonless paper, fragrances, and tampons. A wide variety of fat soluable pesticides are even impregnated into animal feed (fat soluable means it stores in fat). One of the reasons this is done is to cut down on flies in the barnyard. The fecal matter becomes so toxic that it ends up killing the flies! So the questions is — does the animal fat cause us to get dosed with low levels of this stuff? See EPA web site:
Most of the public is completely unaware of how pervasive toxic chemicals are in our homes and offices. If it were just one or two of the chemicals–the effects might be tolerable. But that is not the case at all because the relentless cumulative and synergistic effects of these chemicals is causing great harm to human, animal and environmental health.
When we, our children and our animals suffer symptoms or become ill, have trouble with our reproductive systems — we spend many thousands of dollars on medical imaging, tests, treatments, operations, hospitals and drugs… a circle of profit that has no equal in the corporate world. Again this year – the chemical/pharmaceutical industry was declared the most profitable industry in the world.
What a business plan!
Part 8: Bayer and Bees
Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is a mysterious phenomena that kills off colonies of not only domesticated bees but wild bees as well.
Despite a lot of research since CCD was first recognized in 2006 the causative factors have not been identified and bee colonies world-wide are simply vanishing at an alarming rate.
In the US alone, the consequences, both environmental as well as economic are huge, and according to the USDA “bee pollination is responsible for $15 billion in added crop value, particularly for specialty crops such as almonds and other nuts, berries, fruits, and vegetables.” Moreover, according to UN Food and Agriculture Organisation “of the 100 crop species which provide 90% of global food, 71 are pollinated by bees”
Five years ago when CCD was starting to get a lot of attention over in my Network World Backspin column I discussed (under the snappy title of “To Be Proactive or not to Bee“) the soon thereafter discredited idea that radio signals from cellphone networks could be responsible. While, it turned out, cellphones weren’t the cause, the failed theory raised an interesting question: If cellphones had been responsible, would our society be willing to give up using them?
I got a lot of email on the question and the vast majority of people said that if that was indeed the case they would be happy to give up their cellphone though they all thought everyone else wouldn’t be willing.
The question I didn’t ask, and in hindsight should have, was even if people were willing to forgo their cellphones, what would the cellphone service providers do? Would they have been willing to stop a very profitable business just to do the right thing? How would they have handled the problem? Would they have grasped the opportunity to put the environment first or would they have spun the issue so that as little as possible happened for as long as possible?
We’ll never know whether cellular service providers’ corporate profits would have won out over the bees but the question of corporate responsibility for CCD has just come up again. This time, the industry involved is the agricultural chemical business and, even more specifically, Bayer, the huge German conglomerate which is a giant in agro-chemicals.
Bayer produces nicotine-based pesticides called neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid. These products are harmless, in low doses, to humans but more or less lethal to bugs and while these chemicals can be applied safely, so it is claimed, the sheer scale of their use and the fact that not everyone who uses them is careful in their application is problematic. It now appears from three recent studies that even when used properly, where bees are concerned, these chemicals are toxic. Moreover, the Bayer products were approved by the EPA for use based on a study funded by Bayer which was later discredited by EPA scientists!
So, there’s a lot of evidence that to points to Bayer pesticides as a, if not the, causative agent behind CCD.
Given Bayer’s profits or the possible extinction of bees which would you choose?
First, let’s consider what would happen if Bayer was to actually choose to stop selling neonicotinoids. If subsequent research shows that neonicotinoids aren’t the problem, Bayer will have lost a few hundred million dollars but gained a lot of goodwill for adopting a “better safe than sorry” policy. If that was the case then maybe there’s some way that Bayer could be compensated out of public funds worldwide. If, on the other hand, neonicotinoids are guilty as charged, then the consequences for Bayer would be far less harsh given that it appears they mislead the EPA in the first place.
Alternatively, let’s say Bayer refuses and carries on selling neonicotinoids which are ultimately found to be the problem. Now the combination of having mislead the EPA and not acting responsibly makes Bayer look really, really bad. This scenario would make the phone bugging scandal that has hammered Rupert Murdoch‘s empire look trivial; Bayer could find itself in real trouble in every jurisdiction they operate in worldwide; every legislative body in every country would want a slice of Bayer’s corpse.
The smartest thing Bayer can do is to immediately halt sales of neonicotinoids and fund transparent, independent studies to establish the facts.
You can have a hand in persuading Bayer’s board to act responsibly: Avaaz.org has a petition that will be publicized at the Bayer shareholder’s meeting in Germany tomorrow, Friday,
March April 26. The text of the petition is:
We call on you to vote to stop production and sale of neonicotinoid pesticides until and unless new independent scientific studies prove they are safe. The catastrophic demise of bee colonies could put our whole food chain in danger. If you act urgently with precaution now, we could save bees from extinction.
Please join the more than 320,000 people who have signed the petition.
Your signature may be all that stands between bees and their extinction.
Part 9: Bayer and Monsanto
Dark History of the Evil Monsanto Corporation
click here to see Monsanto’s History TIMELINE
|Monsanto is the world’s leading producer of the herbicide “Roundup”, as well as producing 90% of the world’sgenetically modified (GMO) seeds.Over Monsanto’s 110-year history (1901-2013), Monsanto Co (MON.N), the world’s largest seed company, has evolved from primarily an industrial chemical concern into a pure agricultural products company. MON profited $2 billion dollars in 2009, but their record profits fell to only $1 billion in 2010 after activists exposed Monsanto for doing terribly evil acts like suing good farmers and feeding uranium to pregnant women. Below is a timeline of Monsanto’s dark history.Monsanto, best know today for its agricultural biotechnology GMO products, has a long and dirty history of polluting this country and others with some of the most toxic compounds known to humankind. From PCBs to Agent Orange to Roundup, we have many reasons to question the motives of this evil corporation that claims to be working to reduce environmental destruction and feed the world with its genetically engineered GMO food crops. Monsanto has been repeatedly fined and ruled against for, among many things: mislabeling containers of Roundup,failing to report health data to EPA, plus chemical spills and improper chemical deposition.The name Monsanto has since, for many around the world, come to symbolize the greed, arrogance, scandal and hardball business practices of many multinational corporations. A couple of historical factoids not generally known: Monsanto was heavily involved during WWII in the creation of the first nuclear bomb for the Manhattan Projectvia its facilities in Dayton Ohio and called the Dayton Project headed by Charlie Thomas, Director of Monsanto’s Central Research Department (and later Monsanto President) and it operated a nuclear facility for the federal government in Miamisburg, also in Ohio, called the Mound Project until the 80s.|
Documentary Movies About Monsanto
|Monsanto Company History OverviewMonsanto is a US based agricultural and pharmaceutical monopoly, Monsanto Company is a producer ofherbicides, prescription pharmaceutical drugs, and genetically engineered (GMO) seeds. The global Monsanto corporation has operated sales offices, manufacturing plants, and research facilities in more than 100 countries. Monsanto has the largest share of the global GMO crops market. In 2001 its crops accounted for 91% of the total area of GMO crops planted worldwide. Based on 2001 figures Monsanto was the second biggest seed company in the world, and the third biggest agrochemical company.Historically Monsanto has been involved with the production of PCBs, DDT, dioxins and the defoliant / chemical weapon ‘Agent Orange‘ (sprayed on American troops and Vietnamese civilians during the Vietnam War). Originally achemical company, Until the late 1990s Monsanto was a much larger ‘lifesciences’ company whose business covered chemicals, polymers, food additives and pharmaceuticals, as well as agricultural products.All of these other chemical business areas have now been demerged or sold off. Monsanto sold its chemical business in 1997 to build a presence in biotechnology, developing NON-ORGANIC GMO soybeans and corn (classified as a pesticide and banned in the EU) to resist the poisonous effects of its Roundup herbicide. Monsanto’s key business areas are now agrochemicals, seeds and traits (including GMO crops), Monsanto also produced NutraSweet, aGMO sugar substitute. Monsanto recently sold it’s GMO bovine growth hormones monopoly to Eli Lilly, and sold it’s aspartame business to Pfizer.Monsanto’s business is currently run in two parts: Agricultural Productivity, and Seeds and Genomics. The Agricultural Productivity segment includes Roundup herbicide and other agri-chemicals, and the Animal Agriculture business. The Seeds and Genomics segment consists of seed companies and related biotechnology traits, and a technology platform based on plant genomics. In reality of course these two segments are inseparable, since the agri-chemicals are becoming increasingly dependent on the seeds segment for sales.|
Monsanto’s Early 20th-Century Origins
Monsanto traces its roots to John Francisco Queeny, a purchaser for a wholesale drug house at the turn of the century, who formed the Monsanto Chemical Works in St. Louis, Missouri, in order to produce the artificial sweetenersaccharin for Coca-Cola.
John Francis Queeny (August 17, 1859 – March 19, 1933) started work at age 12 for a wholesale drug company,Tolman and King. He attended school for 6 years until the Great Chicago Fire forced him, at the age of 12, to look for full-time employment, which he found with Tolman and King for $2.50 per week.
In 1891, he moved to St. Louis to work for Meyer Brothers Drug Company. John was inducted into the Knights of Malta order. His first business, a sulfur refinery in East St.Louis, was destroyed by fire on its first day of operation in 1899. The process of refining beet sugar in 1900, led to Monsanto Corporation’s first artificial sweetener, the following year. Butter substitute, MSG and partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening were all soon to follow.
John Francis Queeny married Olga Mendez Monsanto with whom he had two children, one of whom was Edgar Monsanto Queeny, who would later serve as Chairman. n 1901, John then established his own chemical company to produce the sweetener, saccharin, which was only available in Germany at that time. He named the company Monsanto after his wife´s maiden name, Olga Monsanto Queeny.
Queeny was a member of the Missouri Historical Society and was a director of the Lafayette-South Side Bank and Trust Company. “He was also known for his many
Knight of Malta John F. Queeny: Founder of Monsanto
According to the Count in Venice, John Francis Queeny (founder of The Monsanto Company) was a Knight of Malta. Irish-American ROMAN Catholic Queeny (1859-1933) founded Monsanto in 1901 within the Jesuit stronghold of St. Lewis – hosting the Black Pope’s Saint Louis University since 1818.
Robert B. Shapiro was Monsanto’s CEO from 1995 to 2000. The devil’s Great Conspiracy for world government must always appear to be led by Jews, never by the Pope of Rome using select, Masonic “Court Jews” as his underlings!
Once the manufacturer of the now outlawed DDT and Agent Orange duringFrancis Cardinal Spellman’s CIA-directed Vietnam War, the company also developed and now markets bovine growth hormone, further poisoning the food chain here in America. It is most intriguing that Europe – the pope’sRevived Holy Roman Empire deceptively called “The European Union” – refuses to purchase beef produced in the United States!
Upon purchasing G. D. Searle and Company in 1985, Monsanto, via its NutraSweet Company, is the manufacturer of Aspartame, the notorious neuro-toxin sold to the public as an artificial sweetener. Aspartame is the “artificial sweetener” in the soft drink “Diet Pepsi,” Pepisico once employing JFK assassin / FBI liaison to the Warren Commission and Knight of Malta Cartha D. DeLoach.
Monsanto also has strong ties to The Walt Disney Company, with financial backing from the Order’s Bank of America founded in Jesuit-ruled San Francisco by Italian-American ROMAN Catholic Knight of Malta Amadeo Giannini in 1904. Disney owns ABC Television Network and its Director Emeritus is Roy Disney (brother of the late Walt Disney) who was inducted into the Knights of St. Gregory during the same ceremony with Fox Network owner Rupert Murdoch. ABC and Fox are both controlled by Rome through brother Knights of the Order of St. Gregory!
World War I: Petrochemicals
While prior to World War I America relied heavily on foreign supplies of chemicals, the increasing likelihood of U.S. intervention meant that the country would soon need its own domestic producer of chemicals. Looking back on the significance of the war for Monsanto, Queeny’s son Edgar remarked, “There was no choice other than to improvise, to invent and to find new ways of doing all the old things. The old dependence on Europe [Hitler’s IG Farben in Nazi Germany] was, almost overnight, a thing of the past.” Among other problems, Monsanto researchers discovered that pages describing German chemical processes had been ripped out of library books. Monsanto developed severalpharmaceutical products, including phenol as an antiseptic, in addition to acetylsalicyclic acid, or aspirin.
Under Edgar Queeny’s direction Monsanto, now the Monsanto Chemical Company, began to substantially expand and enter into an era of prolonged growth. Acquisitions expanded Monsanto’s product line to include the new field ofpetrochemical plastics and the manufacture of phosphorus.
Postwar Expansion & New Leadership
Largely unknown by the public, Monsanto experienced difficulties in attempting to market consumer goods. However, attempts to refine a low-quality detergent led to developments in grass fertilizer, an important consumer product since the postwar housing boom had created a strong market of homeowners eager to perfect their lawns.
Under Hanley, Monsanto more than doubled its sales and earnings between 1972 and 1983. Toward the end of his tenure, Hanley put into effect a promise he had made to himself and to Monsanto when he accepted the position of president, namely, that his successor would be chosen from Monsanto’s ranks. Hanley and his staff chose approximately20 young executives as potential company leaders and began preparing them for the head position at Monsanto. Among them was Richard J. Mahoney. When Hanley joined Monsanto, Mahoney was a young sales director in agricultural products. In 1983 Hanley turned the leadership of the company over to Mahoney. Wall Street immediately approved this decision with an increase in Monsanto’s share prices.
1976, Monsanto announced plans to phase out
In 1979 a lawsuit was filed against Monsanto and other manufacturers of agent orange, a defoliant used during theVietnam War. Agent orange contained a highly-toxic chemical known as dioxin, and the suit claimed that hundreds of veterans had suffered permanent damage because of the chemical. In 1984 Monsanto and seven other manufacturers agreed to a $180 million settlement just before the trial began. With the announcement of a settlement Monsanto’s share price, depressed because of the uncertainty over the outcome of the trial, rose substantially.
Also in 1984, Monsanto lost a $10 million antitrust suit to Spray-Rite, a former distributor of Monsanto agricultural herbicides. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the suit and award, finding that Monsanto had acted to fix retail prices with other herbicide manufacturers.
In August 1985, Monsanto purchased G. D. Searle, the “NutraSweet” firm. NutraSweet, an artificial sweetener, had generated $700 million in sales that year, and Searle could offer Monsanto an experienced marketing and a sales staff as well as real profit potential – not to mention the fact that Searle’s CEO Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was well-connected among a cabal of corrupt politicians in Washington DC. Since the late 1970s the company had sold nearly 60 low-margin businesses and, with two important agriculture product patents expiring in 1988, a major new cash source was more than welcome. What Monsanto didn’t count on, however, was the controversy surroundingSearle’s intrauterine birth control device called the Copper-7.
Soon after the acquisition, disclosures about hundreds of lawsuits over Searle’s IUD surfaced and turned Monsanto’s takeover into a public relations disaster. The disclosures, which inevitably led to comparisons with those about A. H. Robins, the Dalkan Shield manufacturer that eventually declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy, raised questions as to how carefully Monsanto management had considered the acquisition. In early 1986 Searle discontinued IUD sales in the United States. By 1988 Monsanto’s new subsidiary faced an estimated 500 lawsuits against the Copper-7 IUD. As the parent company, Monsanto was well insulated from its subsidiary’s liabilities by the legal “corporate veil”.
Toward the end of the 1980s, Monsanto faced continued challenges from a variety of sources, including government and public concern over hazardous wastes, fuel and feedstock costs, and import competition. At the end of the 99th Congress, then President Ronald Reagan signed a $8.5 billion, five-year cleanup superfund reauthorization act. Built into the financing was a surcharge on the chemical industry created through the tax reform bill. Biotechnology regulations were just being formulated, and Monsanto, which already had types of genetically engineered bacteriaready for testing, was poised to be an active participant in the GMO biotech field.
In keeping with its strategy to become a leader in the health field, Monsanto and the Washington University Medical School entered into a five-year research contract in 1984. Two-thirds of the research was to be directed into areas with obviously commercial applications, while one-third of the research was to be devoted to theoretical work. One particularly promising discovery involved the application of the bovine growth factor, MARKETED as a way to greatlyincrease milk production.
In the burgeoning low-calorie sweetener market, challengers to NutraSweet were putting pressure on Monsanto.Pfizer Inc., a pharmaceutical company, was preparing to market its product, called alitame, which it claimed was far sweeter than NutraSweet and better suited for baking.
In an interview with Business Week, senior vice-president for research and development Howard Schneidermancommented, “To maintain our markets – and not become another steel industry – we must spend on research and development.” Monsanto, which has committed 8% of its operating budget to research and development, far above the industry average, hoped to emerge in the 1990s as one of the leaders in the fields of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals that are only now emerging from their nascent stage.
By the end of the 1980s, Monsanto had restructured itself and become a producer of specialty chemicals, with a focus on biotechnology products. Monsanto enjoyed consecutive record years in 1988 and 1989 – sales were $8.3 billion and $8.7 billion, respectively. In 1988 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Cytotec, a drug that prevents gastric ulcers in high-risk cases. Sales of Cytotec in the United States reached $39 million in 1989.
The Monsanto Chemical Co. unit prospered with products like Saflex, a type of nylon carpet fiber. The NutraSweet Company held its own in 1989, contributing $180 million in earnings, with growth in the carbonated beverage segment (which Monsanto originated from since 1901 seed money from Coca-Cola to produce carcinogenic Saccharin). Almost 500 new products containing NutraSweet were introduced in 1989, for a total of 3,000 products.
Monsanto continued to invest heavily in research and development, with 7% of sales allotted for R&D. The investment began to pay off when the research and development department developed an all-natural fat substitute calledSimplesse. The FDA declared in early 1990 that the Simplesse product was “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) for use in frozen desserts. That year, the NutraSweet Company introduced Simple Pleasures frozen dairy dessert. Monsanto hoped to see Simplesse used eventually in salad dressings, yogurt, and mayonnaise.
Despite these successes, Monsanto remained frustrated by delays in obtaining FDA approval for bovine somatotropin (BST), a hormore chemical MARKETED to increase milk production in cows that causes mastitis (pus milk). Opponents to BST said it would upset the balance of supply and demand for milk, but Monsanto countered thatBST would provide high-quality food supplies to consumers worldwide.
The final year of the 1980s also marked Monsanto’s listing for the first time on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Monsanto officials expected the listing to improve opportunities for licensing and joint venture agreements.
Monsanto’s Early 1990s Transitional Period
Monsanto had expected to celebrate 1990 as its 5th consecutive year of increased earnings, but numerous factors – theincreased price of OIL due to the Persian Gulf War, a recession in key industries in the United States, and droughts in California and Europe — prevented Monsanto from achieving this goal. Net income was $546 million, a dramatic drop from the record of $679 the previous year. Nonetheless, subsidiary Searle, which had experienced considerable public relations scandals and headaches in the 1980s, had a record financial year in 1990. The subsidiary had established itself in the global pharmaceutical market and was beginning to emerge as an industry leader. The Monsanto Chemical Co., meanwhile, was a $4 billion business that made up the largest percentage of Monsanto’s sales.
Monsanto continued to work at upholding hypocritical “The Monsanto Pledge”, a 1988 declaration to reduce emissions of toxic substances. By its own estimates, Monsanto devoted $285 million annually to environmental expenditures. Furthermore, Monsanto and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to a cleanup program at Monsanto’sdetergent and phosphate plant in Richmond County, Georgia.
Monsanto restructured during the early 1990s to help cut losses during a difficult economic time. Net income in 1991 was only $296 million, $250 million less than the previous year. Despite this showing, 1991 was a good year for some of Monsanto’s newest products. Bovine somatotropin finally gained FDA approval and was sold in Mexico and Brazil, and Monsanto received the go-ahead to use the fat substitute, Simplesse, in a full range of food products, including yogurt, cheese and cheese spreads, and other low-fat spreads. In addition, the herbicide Dimension was approved in 1991, and scientists at Monsanto controversially tested genetically engineered (GE or GMO) plants in field trials.
Furthermore, Monsanto expanded internationally, opening an office in Shanghai and a plant in Beijing, China. Monsanto also hoped to expand in Thailand, and entered into a joint venture in Japan with Mitsubishi Chemical Co.
Monsanto’s sales in 1992 hit $7.8 million. However, as net income dropped 130% from 1991 due to several one-time aftertax charges, Monsanto prepared itself for challenging times. The patent on NutraSweet brand sweetener expired in 1992, and in preparation for increased competition, Monsanto launched new products, such as the NutraSweet Spoonful, which came in tabletop serving jars, like sugar. Monsanto also devoted ongoing research and development toSweetener 2000, a high-intensity product.
In 1992, Monsanto denied that it planned to sell G. D. Searle and Co., pointing out that Searle was a profitable subsidiary that launched many new products. However, to decrease losses, Monsanto did sell Fisher Controls International Inc., a subsidiary that manufactures process control equipment. Profits from the sale were used to buy the Ortho lawn-and-garden business from Chevron Chemical Co.
Monsanto Reinvents Itself in the 1990s
Monsanto expected to see growth in its agricultural, chemical, and biotechnological divisions. In 1993, Monsanto andNTGargiulo joined forces to produce a (GMO) genetically altered tomato. As the decade progressed, biotechnologyplayed an increasingly important role, eventually emerging as the focal point of Monsanto’s operations. The foray intobiotechnology, begun in the mid-1980s with a $150-million investment in a genetic engineering lab in Chesterfield, Missouri, had been faithfully supported by further investments in the ensuing years. Monsanto’s efforts finally yielded tangible success in 1993, when BST was approved for commercial sale after a frustratingly slow FDA approval process. In the coming years, the development of further biotech products moved to the forefront of Monsanto’s activities, ushering in a period of profound change. Fittingly, the sweeping, strategic alterations to Monsanto’s focus were preceded by a change in leadership, making the last decade of the 20th century one of the most dynamic eras in Monsanto’s history.
Toward the end of 1994, Mahoney announced his retirement, effective the following year in March 1995. As part of the same announcement, Mahoney revealed that Robert B. Shapiro, Monsanto’s president and chief operating officer, would be elected by Monsanto’s board of directors as his successor. Shapiro, who had joined Searle in 1979 before being named executive vice-president of Monsanto in 1990, did not waver from exerting his influence over the company he now found himself presiding over. At the time of his promotion, Shapiro inherited a company that ranked as the largest domestic ACRYLIC manufacturer in the world, generating $3 billion of its $7.9 billion in total revenues fromchemical-related sales. This dominant side of Monsanto’s business, representing the foundation upon which it had been built, was eliminated under Shapiro’s stewardship, replaced by a resolute commitment to biotech.
Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, Monsanto had spent approximately $1 billion on developing its biotechbusiness. Although biotech was regarded as a commercially unproven market by some industry analysts, Shapiro pressed forward with the research and development of biotech products, and by the beginning of 1996 he was ready to launchMonsanto’s first biotech product line. Monsanto began marketing herbicide-tolerant GMO soybeans, genetically engineered to resist Monsanto’s PATENTED Roundup herbicide, and insect-resistant GMO BT cotton, beginning with 2,000,000 acres of both crops. By the fall of 1996, there were early indications that the first harvests of genetically engineered crops were performing better than expected (yet WORSE results than traditional and organic crops). News of the encouraging results prompted Shapiro to make a startling announcement in October 1996, when he revealed that Monsanto was considering divesting its chemical business as part of a major reorganization into a life-sciences company.
By the end of 1996, when Shapiro announced he would spin-off the chemical operations as a separate company, Monsanto faced a future without its core business, a $3 billion contributor to Monsanto’s annual revenue volume. Without the chemical operations, Monsanto would be reduced to an approximately $5-billion company deriving half its sales from agricultural products and the rest from pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, but Shapiro did not intend to leave it as such. He foresaw an aggressive push into biotech products, a move that industry pundits generally perceived as astute. “It would be a gamble if they didn’t do it,” commented one analyst in reference to the proposed divestiture. “Monsanto is trying to transform itself into a high-growth agricultural and life sciences company. Low-growth cyclical chemical operations do not fit that bill.” Spurring Shapiro toward this sweeping reinvention of Monsanto were enticing forecasts for the market growth of plant biotech products. A $450 million business in 1995, the market for plant biotech products was expected to reach $2 billion by 2000 and $6 billion by 2005. Shapiro wanted to dominate this fast-growing market as it matured by shaping Monsanto into what he described as the main provider of “Agricultural Biotechnology”.
As preparations were underway for the spin-off of Monsanto’s chemical operations into a new, publicly owned company named Solutia Inc., Shapiro was busy filling the void created by the departure of Monsanto’s core business. A flurry of acquisitions completed between 1995-1997 greatly increased Monsanto’s presence in life sciences, quickly compensating for the revenue lost from the spin-off of Solutia. Among the largest acquisitions were Calgene, Inc., a leader in plant biotech, which was acquired in a two-part transaction in 1995 and 1997, and a 40% interest in Dekalb Genetics Corp., the second-largest seed-corn company in the United States. In 1998, Monsanto acquired the rest ofDeKalb, paying $2.3 billion for the Illinois-based company.
By the end of the 1990s, Monsanto bore only partial resemblance to the Monsanto company that entered the decade. The acquisition campaign that added dozens of biotechnology companies to its portfolio had created a new, dominant force in the promising life sciences field, placing Monsanto in a position to reap massive rewards in the years ahead. For example, a rootworm-resistant strain under development had the potential to save $1 billion worth of damages to corn crops per year. Monsanto’s pharmaceutical business also faced a promising future, highlighted by the introduction of a new arthritis medication named Celebrex in 1999. During its first year, Celebrex registered a record number of prescriptions. As Monsanto entered the 21st century, however, there were two uncertainties that loomed as potentially serious obstacles blocking its future success. The acquisition campaign of the mid- and late-1990s had greatly increased Monsanto’s debt, forcing Monsanto to desperately search for cash. Secondly, there wasgrowing opposition to genetically altered crops at the decade’s conclusion, prompting the United Kingdom to ban the yields from GMO crops for a year. A great part of Monsanto’s future success depended on the resolution of these two issues.
Monsanto’s Financial History
Timeline of Monsanto’s Dark History
|1901: Monsanto was founded in St. Louis, Missouri by John Francis Queeny, a 30-year veteran of the pharmaceutical industry. Queeny funded the start-up with capital from Coca-Cola (saccharin). Founder John Francis Queeny namedMonsanto Chemical Works after his wife, Olga Mendez Monsanto. Queeny’s father in law was Emmanuel Mendes de Monsanto, wealthy financier of asugar company active in Vieques, Puerto Rico and based in St. Thomas in the Danish West Indies.1902: Monsanto manufactures its first product, the artificial sweetenerSaccharin, which Monsanto sold to the Coca-Cola Company. The U.S. government later files suit over the safety of Saccharin – but loses.1904: Queeny persuaded family and friends to invest $15000, Monsanto has strong ties to The Walt Disney Company, it having financial backing from the Order’s Bank of America founded in Jesuit-ruled San Francisco by Italian-American Roman-Catholic Knight of Malta Amadeo Giannini.1905: Monsanto company was also producing caffeine and vanillin and was beginning to turn a profit.1906: The government’s monopoly on meat regulation began, when in response to public panic resulting from the publication of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, Teddy Roosevelt signed legislation mandating federal meat inspections. Today, Salatin claims that agricultural regulation favors multinational corporations such as ConAgra and Monsanto because the treasonous science that supports the USDA regulatory framework is paid for by these corporations, which continue to give large grants to leading schools and research facilities.1908: John Francis Queeny leaves his part-time job as the new branch manager of another drug house the Powers-Weightman-Rosegarten Company to become Monsanto’s full-time president.1912: Agriculture again came to the forefront with the creation of the DeKalb County Farm Bureau, one of the first organizations of its kind. In the 1930s the DeKalb AgResearch Corporation (today MONSANTO) marketed its first hybrid seed corn.1914–1918: During WWI, cut off from imported European chemicals, Monsanto was forced to manufacture it’s own, and it’s position as a leading force in the chemical industry was assured. Unable to import foreign supplies from Europe during World War I, Queeny turned to manufacturing his own raw materials. It was then his scientists discovered that the Germans, in anticipation of the war, had ripped out vital pages from their research books which explained various chemical processes.1915: Business expanded rapidly. Monsanto sales surpass the $1,000,000 mark for the first time.
1917: U.S. government sues Monsanto over the safety of Monsanto’s original product, saccharin. Monsanto eventually won, after several years in court.
1917: Monsanto added more and more products: vanillin, caffeine, and drugs used as sedatives and laxatives.
1917: Bayer, The German competition cut prices in an effort to drive Monsanto out of business, but failed. Soon, Monsanto diversified into phenol (a World War I -era antiseptic), and aspirin when Bayer’s German patent expired in 1917. Monsanto began making aspirin, and soon became the largest manufacturer world-wide.
1918: With the purchase of an Illinois acid company, Monsanto began to widen the scope of its factory operations.
Mar 15, 1918: More than 500 of the 750 employees of the Monsanto Chemical Works, which has big contracts for the Government, went on strike, forcing the plant to dose down.
Aug 15, 1919: Thereafter much of it was declared surplus, and a contract was entered into with the Monsanto Chemical Co., of St. Louis, Mo., by which contract the Director of Sales authorized the Monsanto Co. to sell for the United States its surplus phenol, estimated at 27521242 pounds, for a market price to be fixed from time to time by the representative of the contracting officer of the United States, but with a minimum price of 9 cents a pound.
1919: Monsanto established its presence in Europe by entering into a partnership with Graesser’s Chemical Works at Cefn Mawr near Ruabon, Wales to produce vanillin, salicylic acid, aspirin and later rubber.
|1920s: In its third decade, Monsanto expanded into basic industrial chemicals like sulfuric acid and other chemicals.Jan 5, 1920: The petitioner was authorized to sell two tracts of land in the Common Fields of Cahokia, St. Clair County, containing 2.403 acres and 3.46 acres respectively, to the Monsanto Chemical Works for the sum of $1500.1920-1921: A postwar depression during the early 1920s affected profits, but by the time John Queeny turned over Monsanto to Edgar in 1928 the financial situation was much brighter.1926: Environmental policy was generally governed by local governments, Monsanto Chemical Company founded and incorporated the town of Monsanto, later renamed Sauget, Illinois, to provide a more business friendly environment for one of its chemical plants. For years, the Monsanto plant in Sauget was the nation’s largest producer ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). And although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were banned in the 1970s, they remain in the water along Dead Creek in Sauget.1927: Monsanto had over 2,000 employees, with offices across the country and in England.1927: Shortly after its initial listing on the New York Stock Exchange, Monsanto moved to acquire 2 chemical companies that specialized in rubber. Other chemicals were added in later years, including detergents.1928: John Queeny’s son Edgar Monsanto Queeny takes over the Monsanto company. Monsanto had gone public, a move that paved the way for future expansion. At this time, Monsanto had 55 shareholders, 1,000 employees, and owned a small company in Britain.1929: Monsanto acquires Rubber Services Laboratories. Charlie Sommer joined Monsanto, and later became president of Monsanto in 1960.October 1929: The folks at Monsanto Co. fished through their records, but they couldn’t find out why the company’s symbol is MTC. Monsanto went public in October 1929, just a few days before the great stock market crash. Some symbols are holdovers from the 19th century, when telegraph operators used single-letter symbols for the most active stocks to conserve wire space, says the New York Stock Exchange. Mergers, acquisitions and failure have caused many single-letter symbols to change
1929: Monsanto began production of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the United States. PCBs were considered an industrial wonder chemical – an oil that would not burn, was impervious to degradation and had almost limitless applications. Today PCBs are considered one of the gravest chemical threats on the planet. PCBs, widely used as lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, waterproof coatings and liquid sealants, are potent carcinogens and have been implicated in reproductive, developmental and immune system disorders. The world’s center of PCB manufacturing was Monsanto’s plant on the outskirts of East St. Louis, Illinois, which has the highest rate of fetal death and immature births in the state.
Monsanto produced PCBs for over 50 years and they are now virtually omnipresent in the blood and tissues of humans and wildlife around the globe – from the polar bears at the north pole to the penguins in Antarctica. These days PCBs are banned from production and some experts say there should be no acceptable level of PCBs allowed in the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says, “PCB has been demonstrated to cause cancer, as well as a variety of other adverse health effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system and endocrine system.” But the evidence of widespread contamination from PCBs and related chemicals has been accumulating from 1965 onwards and internal company papers show that Monsanto knew about the PCB dangers from early on.
The PCB problem was particularly severe in the town of Anniston in Alabama where discharges from the local Monsanto plant meant residents developed PCB levels hundreds or thousands of times the average. As The Washington Post reported, “for nearly 40 years, while producing the now-banned industrial coolants known as PCBs at a local factory, Monsanto Co.routinely discharged toxic waste into a west Anniston creek and dumped millions of pounds of PCBs into oozing open-pit landfills. And thousands of pages of Monsanto documents : many emblazoned with warnings such as ‘CONFIDENTIAL: Read and Destroy’ : show that for decades, the corporate giant concealed what it did and what it knew.”
Ken Cook of the Environmental Working Group says that based on the Monsanto documents made public, Monsanto “knew the truth from the very beginning. They lied about it. They hid the truth from their neighbors.” One Monsanto memo explains their justification: “We can’t afford to lose one dollar of business.” Eventually Monsanto was found guilty of conduct “so outrageous in character and extreme in degree as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency so as to be regarded as atrocious and utterly intolerable in civilized society”.
|1930s: DeKalb AgResearch Corporation (today MONSANTO) marketed its first **HYBRID** seed corn (maize).1933: Incorporated as Monsanto Chemical Company1934: “I recognized my two selves: a crusading idealist and a cold, granitic believer in the law of the jungle” – Edgar Monsanto Queeny, Monsanto chairman, 1943-63, “The Spirit of Enterprise”1935: Edward O’Neal (who became chairperson in 1964) came to Monsanto with the acquisition of the Swann Corporation. Monsanto goes into the soap and detergents industry, starts producing phosphorus.1938: Monsanto goes into the plastic business (the year after DuPont helped ban hemp because it was superior to their new NYLON product made from Rockefeller OIL). Monsanto became involved in plastics when it completely took overFiberloid, one of the oldest nitrocellulose production companies, which had a 50% stake in Shawinigan Resins.1939: Monsanto purchased Resinox, a subsidiary of Corn Products, and Commercial Solvents, which specialized inphenolic resins. Thus, just before the war, Monsanto’s plastics interests included phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins, cellulose and vinyl plastics.1939-1945: Monsanto conducts research on uranium for the Manhattan Project in Dayton, Ohio. Dr. Charles Thomas, who later served as Monsanto’s chairman of the board, was present at the first test explosion of the atomic bomb. During World War II, Monsanto played a significant role in the Manhattan Project to develop the atom bomb. Monsanto operated the Dayton Project, and later Mound Laboratories in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Manhattan Project, the development of the first nuclear weapons and, after 1947, the Atomic Energy Commission.|
|1940s: Monsanto had begun focusing on plastics and synthetic fabrics like polystyrene (still widely used in food packaging and other consumer products), which is ranked 5th in the EPA’s 1980s listing of chemicals whose production generates the most total hazardous waste. From the 1940s onwards Monsanto was one of the top 10 US chemical companies.1941: By the time the United States entered World War II, the domestic chemical industry had attained far greater independence from Europe. Monsanto, strengthened by its several acquisitions, was also prepared to produce such strategic materials as phosphates and inorganic chemicals. Most important was Monsanto’s acquisition of a research and development laboratory called Thomas and Hochwalt. The well-known Dayton, Ohio, firm strengthened Monsanto at the time and provided the basis for some of its future achievements in chemical technology. One of its most important discoveries was styrene monomer, a key ingredient in synthetic rubber and a crucial product for the armed forces during the war. Edward J. Bock joined Monsanto in 1941 as an engineer – he rose through the ranks to become a member of the board of directors in 1965 and president in 1968.1943: Massive Texas City plant starts producing synthetic rubber for the Allies in World War II.1944: Monsanto began manufacturing DDT, along with some 15 other companies. The use of DDT in the U.S. was banned by Congress in 1972.1945: Following WW2, Monsanto championed the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, and began manufacturing theherbicide 2,4,5-T, which contains dioxin. Monsanto has been accused of covering up or failing to report dioxin contamination in a wide range of its products.1949: Monsanto acquired American Viscose from England’s Courtauld family.|
|1950: Monsanto began to produce urethane foam – which was flexible, easy to use, and later became crucial in making automobile interiors.1953: Toxicity tests on the effects of 2 PCBs showed that more than 50% of the rats subjected to them DIED, and ALLof them showed damage.1954: Monsanto partnered with German chemical giant Bayer to form Mobay and market polyurethanes in the USA.1955: Monsanto acquired Lion Oil refinery, increasing its assets by more than 50%. Stockholders during this time numbered 43,000. Monsanto starts producing petroleum-based fertilizer.1957: Monsanto moved to the suburban community of Creve Coeur, having finally outgrown its headquarters in downtown St. Louis, Missouri.1957-1967: Monsanto was the creator of several attractions in Disney’s Tommorrowland. Often they revolved around the the virtues of chemicals and plastics. Their “House of the Future” was constructed entirely of plastic, but it was NOT biodegradable. “After attracting a total of 20 million visitors from 1957 to 1967, Disney finally tore the house down, but discovered it would not go down without a fight. According to Monsanto Magazine, wrecking balls literally bounced off the glass-fiber, reinforced polyester material. Torches, jackhammers, chain saws and shovels did not work. Finally, choker cables were used to squeeze off parts of the house bit by bit to be trucked away.”1959: Monsanto sets up Monsanto Electronics Co. in Palo Alto, begins producing ultra-pure silicon for the high-tech industry, in an area which would later become a Superfund site.|
|1960: Edgar Queeny turned over the chair of Monsanto to Charles Thomas, one of the founders of the research and development laboratory so important to Monsanto. Charlie Sommer, who had joined Monsanto in 1929, became president. According to Monsanto historian Dan Forrestal, “Leadership during the 1960s and early 1970s came principally from … executives whose Monsanto roots ran deep.” Under their combined leadership Monsanto saw several important developments, including the establishment of the Agricultural Chemicals division with focus on herbicides, created to consolidate Monsanto’s diverse agrichemical product lines.1961-1971: Agent Orange was a mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D and had very high concentrations of dioxin. Agent Orange was by far the most widely used of the so-called “Rainbow Herbicides” employed in the Herbicidal Warfare program as a defoliant during the Vietnam War. Monsanto became one of 10-36 producers of Agent Orange for US Military operations in Vietnam. Dow Chemical and Monsanto were the two largest producers of Agent Orange for the U.S. military. The Agent Orange produced by Monsanto had dioxin levels many times higher than that produced by Dow Chemicals, the other major supplier of Agent Orange to Vietnam. This made Monsanto the key defendant in the lawsuit brought by Vietnam War veterans in the United States, who faced an array of debilitating symptoms attributable to Agent Orange exposure. Agent Orange is later linked to various health problems, including cancer. U.S. Vietnam War veterans have suffered from a host of debilitating symptoms attributable to Agent Orange exposure. Agent Orange contaminated more than 3,000,000 civilians and servicemen. According to Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4.8 million Vietnamese people were exposed to Agent Orange, resulting in 400,000 deaths and disabilities, plus 500,000 children born with birth defects, leading to calls for Monsanto to be prosecuted for war crimes. Internal Monsanto memos show that Monsanto knew of the problems of dioxin contamination of Agent Orange when it sold it to the U.S. government for use in Vietnam. Look at what the “EFFECTS” of agent orange look like… keep in mind it was used to remove leaves from the trees where AMERICAN SOLDIERS were breathing, eating, sleeping.1962: Public concern over the environment began to escalate. Ralph Nader’s activities and Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring had been influential in increasing the U.S. public’s awareness of activities within the chemical industry in the 1960s, and Monsanto responded in several ways to the pressure.1962: Monsanto’s European expansion continued, with Brussels becoming the permanent overseas headquarters.1964: Monsanto changed its name to Monsanto Company in acknowledgment of its diverse product line. The company consisted of 8 divisions, including petroleum, fibers, building materials, and packaging. Edward O’Neal became chairperson (came to Monsanto in 1935 with the acquisition of the Swann Corporation) was the first chair inMonsanto history who had not first held the post of president.1964: Monsanto introduced “biodegradable” detergents.1965: While working on an ulcer drug in December, James M. Schlatter, a chemist at G.D. Searle & Company, accidentally discovers aspartame, a substance that is 180x sweeter than sugar yet has no calories.
1965: AstroTurf (fake grass) was co-invented by Donald L. Elbert, James M. Faria, and Robert T. Wright, employees ofMonsanto Company. It was patented in 1967 and originally sold under the name “Chemgrass“. It was renamed AstroTurf by Monsanto employee John A. Wortmann after its first well-publicized use at the Houston Astrodome stadium in 1966.1965: The evidence of widespread contamination from PCBs and related chemicals has been accumulating and internal Monsanto papers show that Monsanto knew about the PCB dangers from early on.
1967: Monsanto entered into a joint venture with IG Farben = the German chemical firm that was the financial core of theHitler regime, and was the main supplier of Zyklon-B gas to the German government during the extermination phase of the Holocaust; IG Farben was not dissolved until 2003.
1967: Searle began the safety tests on aspartame that were necessary for applying for FDA approval of food additives. Dr. Harold Waisman, a biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, conducts aspartame safety tests on infant monkeys on behalf of the Searle Company. Of the 7 monkeys that were being fed aspartame mixed with milk, 1 monkey DIED and 5 other monkeys had grand mal seizures.
1968: Edgar Queeny dies, leaving no heirs. Edward J. Bock (who had joined Monsanto in 1941 as an engineer) become a member of the board of directors in 1965, and became president of Monsanto in 1968.
1968: With experts at Monsanto in no doubt that Monsanto’s PCBs were responsible for contamination, Monsanto set up a committee to assess its options. In a paper distributed to only 12 people but which surfaced at the trial in 2002, Monsanto admitted “that the evidence proving the persistence of these compounds and their universal presence as residues in the environment is beyond question … the public and legal pressures to eliminate them to prevent global contamination are inevitable”. Monsanto papers seen by The Guardian newspaper reveal near panic. “The subject is snowballing. Where do we go from here? The alternatives: go out of business; sell the hell out of them as long as we can and do nothing else; try to stay in business; have alternative products”, wrote the recipient of one paper.
1968: Monsanto became the first organization to mass-produce visible LEDs, using gallium arsenide phosphide to produce red LEDs suitable for indicators. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) ushered in the era of solid-state lights. From 1968 to 1970, sales doubled every few months. Their products (discrete LEDs and seven-segment numeric displays) became the standards of industry. The primary markets then were electronic calculators, digital watches, and digital clocks.
1969: High overhead costs and a sluggish national economy led to a dramatic 29% decrease in earnings.
1969: Monsanto wrote a confidential Pollution Abatement Plan which admitted that “the problem involves the entire United States, Canada and sections of Europe, especially the UK and Sweden”.
1969: Monsanto produces Lasso herbicide, better known as Agent Orange, which was used as defoliant by the U.S. Government during the Vietnam War. “[Lasso’s] success turns around the struggling Agriculture Division,” Monsanto’s web page reads.
|1970s: Monsanto was a pioneer of optoelectronics in the 1970s. Although Bock had a reputation for being a committed Monsanto executive, several factors contributed to his volatile term as president. Sales were up in 1970, but Bock’s implementation of the 1971 reorganization caused a significant amount of friction among members of the board and senior management. In spite of the fact that this move, in which Monsanto separated the management of raw materials from Monsanto’s subsidiaries, was widely praised by security analysts, Bock resigned from the presidency in February 1972.1970: Cyclamate (the reigning low-calorie artificial sweetener) is pulled off the market in November after some scientists associate it with cancer. Questions are also raised about safety of saccharin, the only other artificial sweetener on the market, leaving the field wide open for aspartame.
December 18, 1970: Searle Company executives lay out a “Food and Drug Sweetener Strategy” that they feel will put the FDA into a positive frame of mind about aspartame. An internal policy memo describes psychological tactics Monsanto should use to bring the FDA into a subconscious spirit of participation” with them on aspartame and get FDA regulators into the “habit of saying Yes.”
1971: Neuroscientist Dr. John Olney (whose pioneering work with monosodium glutamate MSG was responsible for having it removed from baby foods) informs Searle that his studies show that aspartic acid (one of the ingredients of aspartame) caused holes in the brains of infant mice. One of Searle’s own researchers confirmed Dr. Olney’s findings in a similar study.
1972: The use of DDT was banned by U.S. Congress, due in large part to efforts by environmentalists, who persisted in the challenge put forth by Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring in 1962, which sought to inform the public of the side effects associated with the insecticide, which had been much-welcomed in the fight against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes.
1973: Monsanto developed and patented the glyphosate molecule in the 1970s. Monsanto began manufacturing the herbicide Roundup, which has been marketed as a “safe”, general-purpose herbicide for widespread commercial and consumer use, even though its key ingredient, glyphosate, is a highly toxic poison for animals and humans.
1973: After spending tens of millions of dollars conducting safety tests, the G.D. Searle Company applies for FDA approval and submits over 100 studies they claim support aspartame’s safety. One of the first FDA scientists to review the aspartame safety data states that “the information provided (by Searle) is inadequate to permit an evaluation of the potential toxicity of aspartame“. She says in her report that in order to be certain that aspartame is safe, further clinical tests are needed.
1974: Attorney Jim Turner (consumer advocate who was instrumental in getting cyclamate taken off the market) meets with Searle representatives in May to discuss Dr. Olney’s 1971 study which showed that aspartic acid caused holes in the brains of infant mice.
1974: The FDA grants aspartame its first approval for restricted use in dry foods on July 26.
1974: Jim Turner and Dr. John Olney file the first objections against aspartame’s approval in August.
1975: After a 9-month search, John W. Hanley, a former executive with Procter & Gamble, was chosen as president. Hanley also took over as chairperson.
1976: The success of the herbicide Lasso had turned around Monsanto’s struggling Agriculture Division, and by the time Agent Orange was banned in the U.S. and Lasso was facing increasing criticism, Monsanto had developed theweedkiller “Roundup” (active ingredient: glyphosate) as a replacement. Launched in 1976, Roundup helped make Monsanto the world’s largest producer of herbicides. RoundUp was commercialized, and became the world’s top-sellingherbicide. Within a few years of its 1976 launch, Roundup was being marketed in 115 countries.
The success of Roundup coincided with the recognition by Monsanto executives that they needed to radically transform a company increasingly under threat. According to a recent paper by Dominic Glover, “Monsanto had acquired a particularly unenviable reputation in this regard, as a major producer of both dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – both persistent environmental pollutants posing serious risks to the environment and human health. Law suits and environmental clean-up costs began to cut into Monsanto’s bottom line, but more seriously there was a real fear that a serious lapse could potentially bankrupt the company.” According to Glover, Roundup “Sales grew by 20% in 1981 and as the company increased production it was soon Monsanto’s most profitable product (Monsanto 1981, 1983)… It soon became the single most important product of Monsanto’s agriculture division, which contributed about 20% of sales and around 45% of operating income to the company’s balance sheet each year during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Today, glyphosate remains the world’s biggest herbicide by volume of sales.”
1976: Monsanto produces Cycle-Safe, the world’s first plastic soft-drink bottle. The bottle, suspected of posing acancer risk, is banned the following year by the Food and Drug Administration.
1976: Turner & Olney’s petition on March 24 triggers an FDA investigation of the laboratory practices of aspartame’s manufacturer, G.D. Searle. The investigation finds Searle’s testing procedures shoddy, full of inaccuracies and “manipulated” test data. The investigators report they “had never seen anything as bad as Searle’s testing.”
January 10, 1977: The FDA formally requests the U.S. Attorney’s office to begin grand jury proceedings to investigate whether indictments should be filed against Searle for knowingly misrepresenting findings and “concealing material facts and making false statements” in aspartame safety tests. This is the first time in the FDA’s history that they request a criminal investigation of a manufacturer.
January 26, 1977: While the grand jury probe is underway, Sidley & Austin, the law firm representing Searle, begins job negotiations with the U.S. Attorney in charge of the investigation, Samuel Skinner.
July 1, 1977: Samuel Skinner leaves the U.S. Attorney’s office on July 1st and takes a job with Searle’s law firm. (see Jan. 26th)
August 1, 1977: The Bressler Report, compiled by FDA investigators and headed by Jerome Bressler, is released. The report finds that 98 of the 196 animals died during one of Searle’s studies and weren’t autopsied until later dates, in some cases over one year after death. Many other errors and inconsistencies are noted. For example, a rat was reported alive, then dead, then alive, then dead again; a mass, a uterine polyp, and ovarian neoplasms were found in animals but not reported or diagnosed in Searle’s reports.
December 8, 1977: U.S. Attorney Skinner’s withdrawal and resignation stalls the Searle grand jury investigation for so long that the statue of limitations on the aspartame charges runs out. The grand jury investigation is dropped. (borderline treason)
1979: The FDA established a Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) in June to rule on safety issues surrounding NutraSweet.
|1980: September 30, FDA Board of Inquiry comprised of 3 independent scientists, confirmed that aspartame “might induce brain tumors”. The Public Board of Inquiry concludes NutraSweet should not be approved pending further investigations of brain tumors in animals. The board states it “has NOT been presented with proof of reasonable certainty that aspartame is safe for use as a food additive.” The FDA had actually banned aspartame based on this finding, only to have Searle Chairman Donald Rumsfeld (Ford’s Secretary of Defense 1975-1977, Bush’s Secretary of Defense 2001-2006) vow to “call in his markers,” to get it approved in 1981.1980: Monsanto established the Edgar Monsanto Queeny safety award in honor of its former CEO (1928–1960), to encourage accident prevention.January 1981: Donald Rumsfeld, CEO of Searle, states in a sales meeting that he is going to make a big push to getaspartame approved within the year. Rumsfeld says he will use his political pull in Washington, rather than scientific means, to make sure it gets approved.May 19, 1981: 3 of 6 in-house FDA scientists who were responsible for reviewing the brain tumor issues, Dr. Robert Condon, Dr. Satya Dubey, and Dr. Douglas Park, advise against approval of NutraSweet, stating on the record that the Searle tests are unreliable and not adequate to determine the safety of aspartame.1981: Ronald Reagan is sworn in as President of the United States. Reagan’s transition team, which includes Donald Rumsfeld, CEO of G. D. Searle, hand picks Dr. Arthur Hull Hayes Jr. to be the new FDA Commissioner. On January 21, the day after Ronald Reagan’s inauguration, GD Searle re-applied to the FDA for approval to use aspartame in food sweetener, and Reagan’s new FDA commissioner, Arthur Hayes Hull, Jr., appointed a 5-person Scientific Commission to review the board of inquiry’s decision. It soon became clear that the panel would uphold the ban by a 3-2 decision, but Hull then installed a 6th member on the commission, and the vote became deadlocked. He then personally broke the tie in aspartame’s favor. Hull later left the FDA under allegations of impropriety, served briefly as Provost at New York Medical College, and then took a position with Burston-Marsteller, the chief public relations firm for both Monsanto and GD Searle. Since that time Hull has never spoken publicly about aspartame.July 15, 1981: In one of his first official acts, Dr. Arthur Hayes Jr., the newFDA commissioner, overrules the Public Board of Inquiry, ignores the recommendations of his own internal FDA team and approves NutraSweet for dry products. Hayes says that aspartame has been shown to be safe for its’ proposed uses and says few compounds have withstood such detailed testing and repeated close scrutiny. G.D. Searle gets FDA approval for aspartame(NutraSweet). Monsanto completes its acquisition of Searle in 1985.
1982: Monsanto GMO scientists genetically modify a plant cell for the first time!
1982: Some 2,000 people are relocated from Times Beach, Missouri, which was found to be so thoroughly contaminated with dioxin, a by-product of PCB manufacturing, that the government ordered it evacuated. Dioxins are endocrine and immune system disruptors, cause congenital birth defects, reproductive and developmental problems, and increase the incidence of cancer, heart disease and diabetes in laboratory animals. Critics say a St. Louis-area Monsanto chemical plant was a source but Monsanto denies any connection.
October 15, 1982: The FDA announces that GD Searle has filed a petition that aspartame be approved as a sweetener in carbonated beverages and other liquids.
July 1, 1983: The National Soft Drink Association (NSDA) urges the FDA to delay approval of aspartame for carbonated beverages pending further testing because aspartame is very unstable in liquid form. When liquid aspartame is stored in temperatures above 85°F degrees Fahrenheit, aspartame breaks down into known toxins Diketopiperazines (DKP), methyl (wood) alcohol, and formaldehyde.
July 8, 1983: The National Soft Drink Association drafts an objection to the final ruling which permits the use of aspartame in carbonated beverages and syrup bases and requests a hearing on the objections. The association says that Searle has not provided responsible certainty that aspartame and its’ degradation products are safe for use in soft drinks.
August 8, 1983: Consumer Attorney, Jim Turner of the Community Nutrition Institute and Dr. Woodrow Monte, Arizona State University’s Director of Food Science and Nutritional Laboratories, file suit with the FDA objecting to aspartame approval based on unresolved safety issues.
September, 1983: FDA Commissioner Hayes resigns under a cloud of controversy about his taking unauthorized rides aboard a General Foods jet. (General foods is a major customer of NutraSweet) Burson-Marsteller, Searle‘s public relation firm (which also represented several of NutraSweet’s major users), immediately hires Hayes as senior scientific consultant.
Fall 1983: The first carbonated beverages containing aspartame are sold for public consumption.
1983: Diet Coke was sweetened with aspartame after the sweetener became available in the United States.
November 1984: Center for Disease Control (CDC) “Evaluation of consumer complaints related to aspartame use.” (summary by B. Mullarkey)
1985: Monsanto purchased G.D. Searle, the chemical company that held the patent to aspartame, the active ingredient in NutraSweet. Monsanto was apparently untroubled by aspartame’s clouded past, including a 1980 FDA Board of Inquiry, comprised of three independent scientists, which confirmed that it “might induce brain tumors”. The aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company.
1986: Monsanto found guilty of negligently exposing a worker to benzene at its Chocolate Bayou Plant in Texas. It is forced to pay $100 million to the family of Wilbur Jack Skeen, a worker who died of leukemia after repeated exposures.
1986: At a congressional hearing, medical specialists denounce a National Cancer Institute study disputing thatformaldehyde causes cancer. Monsanto and DuPont scientists helped with the study, whose author provided results to the Formaldehyde Institute industry representatives nearly six months before releasing the study to the EPA, labor unions, and the public.
1986: Monsanto spends $50,000 against California’s anti-toxics initiative, Proposition 65. The initiative prohibits the discharge of chemicals known to cause cancer or birth defects into drinking water supplies.
1987: Monsanto conducted the first field tests of genetically engineered (GMO) crops.
1987: Monsanto is one of the companies named in an $180 million settlement for Vietnam War veterans exposed to Agent Orange.
1987: Monsanto consolidated its AstroTurf management, marketing, and technical activities in Dalton, Georgia, as AstroTurf Industries, Inc.
November 3, 1987: U.S. hearing, “NutraSweet: Health and Safety Concerns,” Committee on Labor and Human Resources, Senator Howard Metzenbaum, chairman.
1988: A federal jury finds Monsanto Co.’s subsidiary, G.D. Searle & Co., negligent in testing and marketing of its Copper 7 intrauterine birth control device (IUD). The verdict followed the unsealing of internal documents regarding safety concerns about the IUD, which was used by nearly 10 million women between 1974 and 1986.
|1990: EPA chemists allege fraud in Monsanto’s 1979 dioxin study, which found exposure to the chemical doesn’t increase cancer risks.1990: Monsanto spends more than $405,000 to defeat California’s pesticide regulation Proposition 128, known as the “Big Green” initiative. The initiative is aimed at phasing out the use of pesticides, including Monsanto’s productalachlor, linked to cancer and
1995: The Safe Shoppers Bible says that Monsanto’s Ortho Weed-B-Gon Lawn Weed Killercontains a known carcinogen, 2,4 D. Monsanto officials argue that ‘numerous studies have found no link to cancer’.
1996: Monsanto introduces its first biotech crop, Roundup Ready soybeans, which tolerate spraying of Roundup herbicide, and biotech BT cotton engineered to resist insect damage.
As Monsanto had moved into biotechnology, its executives had the opportunity to create a new narrative for Monsanto. They begun to portray genetic engineering as a ground-breaking technology that could contribute to feeding a hungry world. Monsanto executive Robb Fraley, who was head of the plant molecular biology research team, is also said to have hyped the potential of GMO crops within the company, as a once-in-a-generation opportunity for Monsanto to dominate a whole new industry, invoking the monopoly success of Microsoft as a powerful analogy. But, according to Glover, the more down-to-earth pitch to fellow executives was that “genetic engineering offered the best prospect of preserving the commercial life of Monsanto’s most important product, Roundup in the face of the challenges Monsanto would face once the patent expired.”
Monsanto eventually achieved this by introducing into crop plants genes that give resistance to glyphosate (the active ingredient in Roundup). This meant farmers could spray Roundup onto their fields as a weedkiller even during the growing season without harming the crop. This allowed Monsanto to “significantly expand the market for Roundup and, more importantly, help Monsanto to negotiate the expiry of its glyphosate patents, on which such a large slice of Monsanto’s income depended.” With glyphosate-tolerant GMO crops, Monsanto was able ìto preserve its dominant share of the glyphosate market through a marketing strategy that would couple proprietary “Roundup Ready” seeds with continued sales of Roundup.
1996-1999: Monsanto sold off its plastics business to Bayer in 1996, and its phenylalanine facilities to Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (GLC) in 1999. Much of the rest of its chemicals division was spun off in late 1997 as Solutia. This helped Monsanto distance itself to some extent not only from direct financial liability for the historical core of its business but also from its controversial production and contamination legacy.
1997: Monsanto spins off its industrial chemical and fibers business into Solutia Inc. amid complaints and legal claims about pollution from its plants. Solutia was spun off from Monsanto as a way for Monsanto to divest itself of billions of dollars in environmental cleanup costs and other liabilities for its past actions – liabilities that eventually forced Solutia to seek Chapter 11 bankruptcy. According to a spokesman for Solutia, “(Monsanto) sort of cherry-picked what they wanted and threw in all kinds of cats and dogs as part of a going-away present,” including $1 billion in debt and environmental and litigation costs. Some pre-bankruptcy Solutia equity holders allege Solutia was set up fraudulently as it was always doomed to fail under the financial weight of Monsanto’s liabilities.
1997: The New York State Attorney General took Monsanto to court and Monsanto was subsequently forced to stop claiming that Roundup is “biodegradable” and “environmentally friendly”.
1997: The Seattle Times reports that Monsanto sold 6,000 tons of contaminated waste to Idaho fertilizer companies, which contained the carcinogenic heavy metal cadmium, believed to cause cancer, kidney disease, neurological dysfunction and birth defects.
1997: Through a process of mergers and spin-offs between 1997 and 2002, Monsanto made a transition from chemical giant to biotech giant. Monsanto’s corporate strategy led them for the first time to acquire seed companies. During the 1990s Monsanto spent $10 billion globally buying up seed companies – a push that continues to this day. It has purchased, for example, Holden’s Foundations Seeds, Seminis – the largest seed company not producing corn or soybeans in the world, the Dutch seed company De Ruiter Seeds, and the big cotton seed firm Delta & Pine. As a result, Monsanto is now the world’s largest seed company, accounting for almost a quarter of the global proprietary seed market.
1998: Monsanto introduces Roundup Ready corn (maize).
1998: In the UK, Monsanto purchased the seed companyPlant Breeding International (PBI) Cambridge, a major UK based cereals and potato breeder, which Monsanto then merged with its existing UK agri-chemicals and GMO research businesses to form Monsanto UK Ltd. Monsanto UK has carried out field trials of glyphosate-tolerant sugar / fodder beet, glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape, and glyphosate-tolerant and male sterility / fertility restorer oilseed rape.
1998: “Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding sources,” unpublished: Ralph G. Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety. The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame’s safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%) identified a problem. 6 of the 7 non-industry funded studies that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
1999: After international criticism, Monsanto agrees not to [PUBLICLY] commercialize “Terminator” seeds.
1999: Monsanto opens its Beautiful Sciences exhibit at Disneyland.
1999: Monsanto sells their phenylalanine facilities to Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (GLC) for $125 million. In 2000, GLC sued Monsanto because of a $71 million dollar shortfall in expected sales.
|2000: 5 pesticide companies, including Monsanto, controlled over 70% of all patents on agricultural biotechnology. Monsanto had the largest share of the global GMO crops market.2000: Since the inception of Plan Colombia, the US has spent hundreds of millions of dollars in funding aerial sprayings of Monsanto’s Roundup herbicides in Colombia. The Roundup is often applied in concentrations 26x higher than what is recommended for agricultural use. Additionally, it contains at least one surfactant, Cosmo-Flux 411f, whose ingredients are a trade secret, has never been approved for use in the US, and which quadruples the biological action of the herbicide. Not surprisingly, numerous human health impacts have been recorded in the areas affected by the sprayings, including respiratory, gastrointestinal and skin problems, and even death, especially in children. Additionally, fish and animals will show up dead in the hours and days subsequent to the herbicide sprayings.2000-2002: Monsanto merges with Pharmacia & Upjohn, and changes its name to Pharmacia Corporation. Monsanto Company restructures in deal with Pharmacia & Upjohn Inc; separates agricultural and chemicals businesses and becomes stand-alone agricultural company. By 2000 the current Monsanto had emerged from various transactions, including a merger for a time with Pharmacia, as a legally different corporation from the Monsanto that had existed from 1901-2000. This was despite the fact that both Monsantos shared not just the same name, but thesame corporate headquarters near St. Louis, Missouri, and many of the same executives and other employees, not to mention much of the responsibility for liabilities arising out of its former activities.2001: Retired Monsanto chemist William S. Knowles was named a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation, which was carried out at Monsanto beginning in the 1960s until his 1986 retirement.2001: Monsanto GMO crops accounted for 91% of the total area of GMO crops planted worldwide.2002: Monsanto entered into an important agreement with DuPont. As a result of this “agreement” both companies agreed to drop a raft of outstanding patent lawsuits against one another and to share their patented GMO cropstechnologies. Some commentators see this ‘agreement’ as constituting a pseudo-merger by stealth of the two companies’ GMO crops monopolies which are too large to be permitted to merge.August 13, 2002: Monsanto had sales of $4,673,000,000. Based on 2001 figures Monsanto was the second biggest seed company in the world, and the third biggest agrochemical company. The infamous agrochemical and biotechnology division, still known as Monsanto, was spun off as a nominally separate company with Pharmacia originally retaining an 85% share. Monsanto Company became completely separate and independent from Pharmacia on August 13, 2002, when Pharmacia distributed its remaining Monsanto shares to Pharmacia’s stockholders.2002: Events in Argentina also affected the company in other ways: Monsanto’s Argentine unit lost $154 millionin the 2002 fiscal year, due to the collapse of the Argentine economy and a deepening recession which forced the government to default on most of its public debt, and devalue the peso in January 2002. The government also converted what was a dollar economy into a peso economy and, as a result, Monsanto received devalued pesos for products it had sold in dollars, slashing its sales income.2002: The Washington Post ran an article entitled, “Monsanto Hid Decades Of Pollution, PCBs Drenched Alabama Town, But No One Was Ever Told” about PCBs. Monsanto share price plummeted in the second half of 2002 following its sell off by former parent company Pharmacia and this was compounded by the departure of Monsanto’s CEO at the end of 2002.
December 2002: CEO Hendrik Verfaillie resigned after he and the board agreed that his performance had beendisappointing and the company had faced extensive criticism for failing to deal more honestly and effectively with its difficulties. “This is a company that has been optimistic on the borderline of LYING,” said Sergey Vasnetsov, senior analyst with Lehman Brothers in New York. “Monsanto has been feeding us these FANTASIES for two years, and when we saw they weren’t real, its stock price fell.”
2003: Jury fines Monsanto and its former chemical subsidiary, Solutia, Inc. (now owned by Pharmacia Corp.), agreed to pay $600 million in August to settle claims brought by more than 20,000+ residents of Anniston, Alabama – over the severe contamination of ground and water by tons of PCBs dumped in the area from the 1930s until the 1970s. Court documents revealed that Monsanto was aware of the contamination decades earlier.
2003: Solutia, Inc. (now owned by Pharmacia Corp.) files Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2004: Monsanto forms American Seeds Inc holding company for corn and soybean seed deals and begins brand acquisitions.
2004-2005: Monsanto filed lawsuits against many farmers in Canada and the U.S. on the grounds of patent infringement, specifically the farmers’ sale of seed containing Monsanto’s patented genes. In some cases, farmers claimed the seed was unknowingly sown by wind carrying the seeds from neighboring crops, a claim rejected inMonsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser. These instances began in the mid to late 1990s, with one of the most significant cases being decided in Monsanto’s favor by the Canadian Supreme Court. By a 5-4 vote in late May 2004, that court ruled that “by cultivating a plant containing the patented gene and composed of the patented cells without license, the appellants (canola farmer Percy Schmeiser) deprived the respondents of the full enjoyment of the patent.” With this ruling, the Canadian courts followed the U.S. Supreme Court in its decision on patent issues involving plants and genes.
2005: Monsanto has patent claims on breeding techniques for pigs which would grant them ownership of any pigs born of such techniques and their related herds. Greenpeace claims Monsanto is trying to claim ownership on ordinary breeding techniques. Monsanto claims that the patent is a defensive measure to track animals from its system. They furthermore claim their patented method uses a specialized insemination device that requires less sperm than is typically needed.
2005: Environmental, consumer groups question safety of Roundup Ready crops, say they create “super weeds,” among other problems.
2006: In January, the South Korean Appeals Court ordered Dow Chemical and Monsanto to pay $62 million in compensation to about 6,800 people.
2006: Organic farmers, concerned about the impact of GMO alfalfa on their crops, sued Monsanto (Monsanto Company vs. Geertson Seed Farms). In response, in May 2007, the California Northern District Court issued an injunction order prohibiting farmers from planting Roundup Ready alfalfa until the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) completed a study on the genetically engineered crop’s likely environmental impact. As a result, the USDA put a hold on any further planting of Roundup Ready alfalfa.
2006: the Public Patent Foundation filed requests with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to revoke 4 patents that Monsanto has used in patent lawsuits against farmers. In the first round of reexamination, claims in all 4 patents were rejected by the Patent Office in 4 separate rulings dating from February through July 2007. Monsanto has since filed responses in the reexaminations.
2006-2007: Monsanto buys several regional seed companies and cotton seed leader Delta and Pine Land Co. – Competitors allege Monsanto gaining seed industry monopoly.
2007: Monsanto’s biotech seeds and traits (including those licensed to other companies) accounted for almost 90% of the total world area devoted toGMOseeds.
2007: California Northern District Court issued an injunction order prohibiting farmers from planting Roundup Ready alfalfa until the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) completed a study on the genetically engineered crop’s likely environmental impact. As a result, the USDA put a hold on any further planting of Roundup Ready alfalfa.
2007: USDA Dairy Survey estimated rBGH use at 15.2% of operations and 17.2% of cows.
2008: Monsanto sells Posilac business to Eli Lilly (polio vaccine manufacturer) amid consumer and food industry concerns about the dairy cow hormone supplement.
2008: Acquires sugarcane breeding companies, and a Dutch hybrid seed company.
2008-2009: U.S. Department of Justice says it is looking into monopolistic power in the U.S. seed industry.
2009: Monsanto posts record net sales of $11.7 billion and net income of $2.1 billion for fiscal 2009.
2009: Monsanto announces a project to improve the living conditions of 10,000 small cotton and corn farmers in 1,100 villages in India (keep in mind that 100,000 small cotton farmers in India commit suicide by drinking Roundup AFTER massive GMO crop failures bankrupted their families); donates cotton technology to academic researchers.
2010: Monsanto introduces their new brand Genuity
2010: Farmers in South Africa report 80% of the GMO corn was SEEDLESS at harvest time!
2010: Monsanto was named company of the year by Forbes magazine in January.
|2010: Demand for milk without using synthetic hormones has increased 500% in the US since Monsanto introduced their rBST product. Monsanto has responded to this trend bylobbying state governments to ban the practice of distinguishing between milk from farms pledged not to use rBST and those that do.2011: Monsanto posts net income of $1 billion for fiscal 2010. OUCH! a 50% loss from 2009.Today, over 80% of the worldwide area devoted to GMO crops carries at least one genetic trait for (Monsanto’s Roundup) herbicide tolerance. Herbicides account for about one-third of the global pesticide market. Monsanto’s glyphosate-resistant (Roundup Ready) seeds have reigned supreme on the biotech scene for over a decade – creating a near-monopoly for Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide – which is now off patent. Roundup is the world’s biggest selling pesticide and it has helped make Monsanto the world’s 5th largest agrochemical company.|
|The Future of GMO Crops: Wheat for HumansMonsanto’s strategy is based around genetically modifying SUBSIDIZED commodity crops, and refining technologies which it already has commercialized. Monsanto is continuing to develop genetically modified traits that can be stacked in a single seed product, along with Roundup Ready tolerance to provide continuing sales for the herbicide.The most important new product Monsanto is trying to introduce is RoundUp Ready wheat. This has caused an unexpected level of debate in the USA, generally because it is the first major GMO crop which would be used predominantly for products to be consumed by humans rather than as animal feed. Wheat is also a vital export crop for the USA, which currently holds 26-28% of the world market share. The EU was the fourth largest importer ofU.S. wheat overall in 2001, and although this position may diminish due to new EU rules on imports, it would nevertheless be extremely serious for the USA to virtually lose the EU market for its wheat, which is a real possibility ifGMO wheat is commercialized.As well as wheat, Monsanto is mainly concentrating on different traits in crops which it has already worked with. The majority of its field trials in the USA during the last two years have involved corn, altered to exhibit various traits.Monsanto is also involved in a joint venture with Cargill Renessen, which is currently developing the following GMO crops: Improved-oil soybeans for feed, Three kinds of improved-energy corn (maize) for feed Healthier oil for food uses, Improved-protein soybeans for feed, High-starch/ethanol corn (maize), Processor Preferredsoybeans.Herbicide-tolerant (RoundUp Ready) varieties continue to play a large part in Monsanto’s plans, showing that although these are extremely easy to reject due to their obvious benefits to corporations and lack of benefits to humans, Monsanto believes that there is still a large potential for their GMOs.|
Monsanto History Resources:
Monsanto’s Sordid History from the Center for Food Safety
“A Monsanto History” (2004) was published by CropChoice.org
The Organic Consumers Association Monsanto page also has lots of Monsanto history
The ETC Group publishes reports on the global seed oligopoly
“A Checkered History” by Brian Tokar (The Ecologist, 1998)
Mindfully.org has a useful page called “Monsanto Roundup“
The Backbone of Modern Medicine
Real strength comes from understanding history. When it comes to medicine and vaccines it is important to free our minds from the overriding conditioning that has been printed onto our brains like circuit boards. What we will find in history takes us right into the present, into a nightmare of unprecedented proportions, into the face of darkness that the world has tasted and forgotten, only to be hit again with on a scale that encircles the globe. When it comes to medicine we all look to the FDA and the CDC, the AMA and the APA for comfort and trust that what we eat, take as medicine, and give to our children in the form of vaccines is safe. It is to these people and organizations that we give our trust and blind faith. It has long been known, and is on official federal records and testimony that many of the people in these organizations shuffle back and forth or own stock in one or more of the major pharmaceutical firms who all share similar philosophies and practices. Many have been part of huge conglomerates that were broken up after WWII. Did you know that?
The people who bring you your Bayer Aspirin are the same folks who built and ran the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
Auschwitz was the largest mass extermination factory in human history. Few people know that Auschwitz was a 100% subsidiary of IG Farben which now lives on as the Bayer Aspirin company. On April 14, 1941, in Ludwigshafen, Otto Armbrust, the IG Farben board member responsible for the Auschwitz project, stated to his IG Farben board colleagues, “our new friendship with the SS is a blessing. We have determined all measures integrating the concentration camps to benefit our company.” The pharmaceutical departments of the IG Farben cartel used the victims of the concentration camps in their own way: thousands of them died during human experiments such as the testing of new vaccines.
Bayer experimental drugs were tested on Auschwitz prisoners. One of the SS doctors at Auschwitz, Dr. Helmut Vetter, a longtime Bayer employee, was involved in the testing of Bayer experimental vaccines and medicines on inmates. He was later executed for giving inmates fatal injections. “I have thrown myself into my work wholeheartedly,” he wrote to his bosses at Bayer headquarters. “Especially as I have the opportunity to test our new preparations. I feel like I am in paradise.”
The pharmaceutical and chemical giant I.G. Farben attempted to shake its abominable image through corporate restructuring and renaming after World War II and they succeeded beyond their wildest imagination. So great has been their success that the public has no idea that many of the men who were responsible for the worst atrocities known to mankind were able to carry on their work despite the demise of the Nazi regime. The story of pharmaceutical terrorism is the story of such men, which are the same men who are most responsible for creating the modern medical paradigm that, relies almost exclusively on drugs of highly toxic and poisonous natures. These men were in control of the large chemical and pharmaceutical companies well before Hitler reached puberty and were around well after his death.
“I’ve never met a drug yet, including aspirin,
that didn’t have some side effects.”
Dr. Arthur Caplan
The Nuremberg War Criminal Tribunal convicted 24 IG Farben board members and executives on the basis of mass murder, slavery and other crimes against humanity. Amazingly however, by 1951 all of them had already been released, continuing to consult with German corporations. The Nuremberg Tribunal dissolved the IG Farben into Bayer, Hoechst, and BASF. Today each of the three daughters of the IG Farben is 20 times as big as the IG Farben mother was at its height in 1944, the last year of the Second World War. More importantly, for almost three decades after the Second World War, BASF, Bayer and Hoechst (now Aventis) each filled its highest position, chairman of the board, with former members of the Nazi regime.
By accepted legal standards, the Bayer Company of today is, in fact, the Bayer of World War II. As such it is being sued by survivors of medical experiments such as Eva Kor who, with her sister, survived the most terrible experiences at the hand of one of the most terrible medical monsters who ever lived, Dr. Josef Mengele at Auschwitz
In 1998, the pharmaceutical giant, Bayer, conducted pesticide experiments on humans in what was called the Inveresk trials. Three years later the company behind the tests stands accused of breaking the Nuremberg Code. The Sunday Herald in England reported that subjects were given a single dose of a substance called azinphos-methyl (AM) and then observed for seven days. This is just the tip of the iceberg that shows the kinds of attitudes that have always been a part of pharmaceutical companies like Lilly which lied about the safety of thimerosal in the 1930’s and then proceeded to put its mercury based compound ‘almost’ secretly into vaccines and many other medical products for decades without interference from the FDA.
Nazi doctors and scientists at Auschwitz were called the “ultimate biological warriors,” by Dr. Robert Jay Lifton for their acts of carrying out Nazism’s extreme racial eugenics.
The tradition lives on, and many of the techniques are the same. All of this is important when looking for medical truth and sanity because it is exactly that which was abandoned by the pharmaceutical and chemical giants in the beginning of the 20th century. It is a historic fact that it was the Rockefeller-Farben industrial complexes that were instrumental in fostering chemical-based drug treatment as the basis for health care, and true to form they have been the dominant adversaries against safer non-drug treatments. When John D. Rockefeller interlocked his American-based, international empire with that of I.G. Farben in 1928 “there was created the largest and most powerful cartel the world has ever known. Not only has that cartel survived through the years, it has grown and prospered. Today it plays a major role in both the science and politics of cancer therapy,” wrote G. Edward Griffin in a World Without Cancer and The Politics of Cancer Therapy.
A major reason why health care is in such a shambles is that the medical establishment has allowed itself to be bought off by the pharmaceutical industry, whose prime motive is profit.
Eustace Mullins described very well the roots of this nightmare and how John D. Rockefeller, with the help of the American Medical Association and government officials, gained control of America’s “health” care industry in the early part of this century. “Educating” medical students was instrumental in their plan, Mullins writes: “Rockefeller’s Education Board has spent more than $100 million to gain control of the nation’s medical schools and turn our physicians to physicians of the allopathic school, dedicated to surgery and the heavy use of drugs.”
Heroin, originally created by I.G. Farben, is outlawed in 1924 as a prescription drug in the United States.
Many are the horror stories that have come from this insanity. Forty years ago, for instance, the world was shocked by the thalidomide tragedy — when regulatory agencies in many countries approved a drug that caused damage to the fetus in early pregnancy. About 8,000 mothers worldwide who used the drug as a sleeping pill or as a remedy for morning sickness during the late 1950s and early 1960s gave birth to children with flipper-like arms and legs, missing fingers and toes and/or organs in the wrong places. The drug was ultimately banned in 1962. This was a high profile situation that has been repeated time and time again in more subtle ways with many other drugs and vaccines which are sold to us as safe but hold hidden horrors that we just do not want to see.
Mandatory vaccine programs are “A violation of the Nuremberg Code in that they force
individuals to have medical treatment against their will, or to participate in the
functional equivalent of a vast experiment without fully informed consent.”
Jane Orient, M.D.
Modern psychology has completely failed the human race for it has excluded from the roles of the criminally insane the psychological profiles of a group of men who control the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, men who take it as their duty and destiny to slowly torture and kill uncounted millions of other humans through slow, and sometimes quick chemical poisoning. History will one day show that the people at the top, and probably in the middle of these organizations are the greatest criminals that humanity has ever known for it will be recorded that they have been responsible for the murder and deliberate poisoning and death of uncounted millions of people including, incredibly, newborn infants. This might seem like the most fantastic of fantastic statements you have ever read but when you put together the whole picture we come to see that the principle organizations involved with medicine and public health subscribe to the same philosophies of the same people and organizations involved in the extermination of millions of people. The science and philosophy of the CDC and the FDA is that poisons are safe and suitable for mass consumption and the AMA and the APA back them up to the hilt. People are gullible and have a natural tendency to believe government approved products are safe. The people who should be locked in prison for eternity are the people who now demand proofs that known poisons are hazardous to you or your children’s health.
The general nature of ‘evil’ is to not have consciousness of the effect that our actions have on the worlds of others. Thus ignorance and evil are really the same thing.
The pharmaceutical companies live very comfortably behind the high walls of self-images that they have deliberately created to deceive us. They portray themselves in the light of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch and other pioneers in medicine successfully hiding the truth of who they really are. They claim to be interested in the eradication of diseases in order to serve humanity when the truth is they deliberately create disease to expand their markets and profits. “The pharmaceutical industry does not act in the tradition of the protector of humanity, but in the tradition of IG Farben, a group of organized criminals willing to sacrifice countless human lives in order to maintain their profits” says Dr. Rath who has filed a case against them at the world court at the Hague. Many are the examples but one of the most outstanding ones is the story found with aspartame. Aspartame has been linked to a full spectrum of chronic symptoms affecting men, women and children. Aspartame is a slow-acting poison now found in over 7000 foods, beverages and medicines but is known mostly as a sweetening agent in diet drinks. Known as an excitotoxin, along with MSG, both have been linked to neuro-degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis according to neuroscientist Russel Blaylock, MD. Perhaps one of the chief problems with this substance is that internally, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids and methanol, which degrades into formaldehyde. The FDA totally lost all credibility with this product, which at first refused to approve it for consumption for obvious reasons. But then the man most responsible for the mess in Iraq, Donald Rumsfeld was hired by the G.D. Searle (the original developer of aspartame) as CEO who then used political muscle instead of safety tests to force approval.
In 1995 the worldwide production of aspartame reached over 13,000 tons, and so far to date since 1981 approximately 800 million pounds have been produced and consumed.
The chief patent holder of the sweetener is the Monsanto Co., based in St. Louis. In 1967, Monsanto entered into a joint venture with I.G. Farbenfabriken, the aforementioned financial core of the Hitler regime and the key supplier of poison gas to the Nazi racial extermination program. In view of Monsanto’s Nazi, chemical warfare ties, and the fact that aspartame is a potent stand alone poison, NutraSweet is a can of worms unprecedented in the American food industry and casts an extraordinarily long shadow across the integrity of the FDA and the American Medical Association that should have screamed bloody murder over the issue. The history of the product is laden with flawed and fabricated research findings, basically a barrage of blatant lies provided by a battery of independent medical researchers, all of which were used as the basis of FDA approval.
Aspartame is a deliberate poisoning of the masses.