The Importance of Acid and Alkaline Balance for Health

Virtually all degenerative diseases including cancer, heart disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, kidney and gall stones, and tooth decay are associated with excess acidity in the body. While the body has a homeostatic mechanism that maintains a constant pH 7.4 in the blood, this mechanism works by depositing and withdrawing acid and alkaline minerals from other locations including the bones, soft tissues, body fluids and saliva. Therefore, the pH of these other tissues can fluctuate greatly. The pH of saliva offers a window through which you can see the overall pH balance in your body.

Cancer cannot exist in an alkaline environment. All forms of arthritis are associated with excess acidity. Acid in the body dissolves both teeth and bones. Whatever health situation you are faced with, you can monitor your progress toward a proper acid/alkaline balance by testing your saliva pH.

What are Acid and Alkaline?

Water (H2O) ionizes into hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH) ions. When these ions are in equal proportions, the pH is a neutral 7. When there are more H+ ions than OH ions then the water is said to be acid. If OH ions outnumber the H+ ions then the water is alkaline. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 and is logarithmic, which means that each step is ten times the previous. In other words, a pH of 4.5 is 10 times more acid than 5.5, 100 times more acid than 6.5 and 1,000 times more acid than 7.5.

Due to the positive electrical charge of acid (H+) and the negative charge of alkali (OH), pH can also be thought of in terms of electrical charge, indeed this is how a pH meter works. A pH of zero is the extreme acid end and has an electrical charge of +420 millivolts. A pH of 7 is neutral between acid and alkaline, and has an electrical charge of zero millivolts. A pH of 14 is the extreme alkaline end of the scale and has an electrical charge of -420 millivolts. Each step in the pH scale is plus or minus 60 millivolts.

From this we can calculate that a pH of 7.35 has an electrical charge of -21 millivolts. A pH of 7.45 has an electrical charge of -27 millivolts. Children are reported to have an electrical charge of -35 millivolts which equates to a pH of 7.58.

Dr. Jerry Tennant has extensively studied the subject of electrical charge/pH and health 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Injured tissue heals at -50 to -70 millivolts, and if this charge cannot be attained by the body then healing does not take place. Minus 50 to -70 millivolts equates to a pH between 7.83 and 8.17. All these healthy pH values have a negative electrical charge, which means that alkaline body fluids act as an antioxidant. Cancer begins at an electrical charge of +30 millivolts (pH 6.5). This reversal of polarity from negative to positive electrical charge damages tissues, prevents healing, deprives tissues of oxygen and even prevents cell membranes from transferring nutrients into the cell and wastes out.

A simple test you can do to measure your susceptibility to cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, and many other degenerative diseases.

How to Do the Saliva pH Test

Wait at least 2 hours after eating. Fill your mouth with saliva and then swallow it. Do this again to help ensure that the saliva is clean. Then the third time, put some saliva onto pH paper. Wait a few seconds until the pH paper stops changing color.

The pH paper should turn blue. This indicates that your saliva is slightly alkaline at a healthy pH of 7.4. If it is not blue, compare the color with the chart that comes with the pH paper. If your saliva is acid (below pH of 7.0) wait two hours and repeat the test.

Acid and Alkaline Minerals and Foods

Minerals with a negative electrical charge are attracted to the H+ ion. These are called acid minerals. Acid minerals include: chlorine (Cl), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), and they form hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Minerals with a positive electrical charge are attracted to the negatively charged OH ion. These are called alkaline minerals. Nutritionally important alkaline minerals include calcium (Ca+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg+), and sodium (Na+). (Cancer patients tend to have an excess of sodium. – Gerson page 97). Also important for cancer treatment and prevention are the alkaline trace minerals rubidium and cesium.

To determine if a food is acid or alkaline, it is burned and the ash is mixed with water. If the solution is acid or alkaline then the food is called acid or alkaline. Ash is the mineral content of the food. This method removes (volatile) organic acids that will be metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. It seems surprising that a lemon or grapefruit would be considered alkaline, but it is the effect of the food on the physiology AFTER it has been digested and metabolized that we are interested in. The (non-volatile) residual effect of food on the acid/alkaline balance in the body is determined by the mineral content of the food.

Twelve Ways to Restore Acid/Alkaline Balance in Your Body

If your saliva is too acid you may wish to increase the alkalinity of your body. Ways to do this include:

1. Eat mostly alkaline foods. The general “rule of thumb” is to eat 20% acid foods and 80% alkaline foods. Minimize the “strongly acid” foods. So about three quarters of your plate should be covered with alkaline foods.

Strongly Acid

Mild Acid

Mild Alkaline

Strongly Alkaline










nuts, seeds



hard cheese

milk, yoghurt, kefir, soft curds

It is the sulphur in the concentrated protein of meat, fish, eggs and hard cheese, and phosphorous in meat and soft drinks that makes these foods so acidic. In general, a more vegetarian diet is more alkaline. It is a question of balance, and at present the balance is tilted too heavily in the direction of acid foods.

Fats and oils have a neutral pH, neither acid nor alkaline. Plant-based beverages (tea, coffee, cocoa, herbal teas, beer, wine, juices of fruits and vegetables) are generally mildly alkaline. The above summary is based on a detailed Acid Base Food Table you can download. If you want more information, there are some articles you can read here 1, 2.

The healthiest dairy products to consume have never been pasteurized or homogenized. Look for “raw” milk, and cheese made from raw milk. Kefir is better for your gut than yoghurt. The healthiest way to consume grains and legumes is in the form of sprouts. In a sense, by sprouting grains or legumes you are turning them into vegetables. Plus, the sprouting process deactivates enzyme inhibitors and other chemicals in the seeds so that in some cases cooking is no longer necessary. There are many advantages to eating foods raw when possible, as we discuss on our raw foods page.

Alkalize For Health endorses the “nutritarian” diet advocated by Dr. Joel Fuhrman 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

2. Supplement your diet with alkaline minerals. The main alkaline minerals in the body are calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. These minerals complement each other. For example, calcium is needed to contract a muscle and magnesium is needed to relax it. At a cellular level, your cells maintain a balance of potassium inside and sodium outside, but this pumping of potassium and sodium requires magnesium. The calcium concentration in cells is controlled by sodium. All four of these minerals work together in the body. Problems arise in the body when one or more of the minerals are deficient or when the minerals are out of balance with each other. For example, here is a look at potassium vs. sodium.

When potassium is insufficient, and sodium is excessive, the potassium/sodium pump is not able to keep sodium out of the cells. As sodium enters the cells they swell with water (cellular edema), energy production is reduced, and the cellular metabolism of proteins and fats is inhibited.

People in North America tend to consume too much calcium and sodium and insufficient potassium and magnesium. This is often reflected in urine tests which show calcium and sodium being excreted while potassium and magnesium are being retained. This is why we are not much interested in urine pH, which simply reflects waste being discarded by the body. Of much greater interest is the pH of saliva, which reflects your success in maintaining an alkaline condition within your body. Beyond this, we do suggest checking your urine for vitamin C. However, if you are having difficulty in becoming alkaline, checking the pH of your urine and finding that it is alkaline will show that the alkalinity is being absorbed into the blood. Some of it will then be excreted by the kidneys as alkaline urine. You can take three pH strips and line them up on the edge of the bathroom sink. Dip the first into water containing potassium bicarbonate, dip the second into the urine stream and dip the third into saliva. Ideally they will look quite similar.  

Eating too much calcium inhibits the absorption of magnesium, and eating too much magnesium inhibits the absorption of calcium (Hoffer & Saul, pages 156-159). These two minerals need to be consumed in an appropriate balance. A problem arises because dairy products contain calcium but little magnesium. There is no relationship between the consumption of calcium and the incidence of osteoporosis. However, magnesium does increase bone density.

In the North American diet, excess calcium is coming primarily from dairy products and supplements, and excess sodium is coming from “prepared foods” that are loaded with salt. Largely missing from the diet are potassium and magnesium that would come from eating fruits and vegetables. A diet based on fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, with a small amount of dairy, would give the body all four of the alkaline minerals in better balance. This is the diet we recommend in point number 1 above. Given that the kidneys will excrete excess minerals and retain what the body needs, it is not necessary to be overly concerned about consuming “right” amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Just make sure that your diet contains all four of the alkaline minerals in reasonable balance.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Adults

Male Female
Sodium 1,500 mg 1,300 mg
Potassium 4,700 mg 4,700 mg
Calcium 1,200 mg 1,200 mg
Magnesium 420 mg 320 mg

Calcium supplements are generally 500 mg to 1,000 mg, which is probably too much. The World Health Organization recommends only 500 mg/day for children and 800 mg of calcium daily for adults. This lower amount of calcium is easily obtainable from food. Too much calcium, particularly if not accompanied by sufficient magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin K, and trace minerals can CAUSE many health problems (1, 2). People in third world countries generally have strong bones yet consume much less calcium than in wealthier countries. The secret is they get plenty of vitamin D from sunshine and lots of potassium and magnesium from fruits and vegetables.

From the above table it is clear that potassium is the main alkalizing mineral in the body.  Therefore, it is interesting that potassium supplements are generally 99 mg which is virtually useless. This is why we suggest 1 level teaspoon of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) in a glass of water daily (or 1/2 teaspoon in water once or twice daily). There are about 5 grams in a level teaspoon of baking power, and of this about 2 grams are potassium and 3 grams are bicarbonate. Watch this video. Here is a link to the paper discussed in the video. Potassium bicarbonate is available as an alternative to the sodium bicarbonate ordinarily used as baking soda. In our experience, potassium bicarbonate in water has a pleasant slightly salty taste.

Potassium bicarbonate supplementation reduces calcium loss from the body. This is evidence of chronic acidosis, because calcium from bone is used by the body as a last resort buffer in response to prolonged metabolic acidosis.

Potassium and bicarbonate are the main alkalizing ions in saliva. “The net result of these transport processes is that under resting conditions, the concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in the saliva are only about 15 mEq/liter each, about one seventh to one tenth their concentrations in plasma. On the other hand, the concentration of potassium ions is about 30 mEq/liter, seven times as great as its concentration in plasma, and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is 50 to 70 mEq/liter, about two to three times that of plasma.” – Guyton & Hall, page 818. As a side note, the salivary glands also have pumps (known as “sodium-iodine symporter”) to concentrate iodine into the saliva. If you have ever wondered why human saliva is not antiseptic, one reason might be that most modern humans do not eat enough iodine. The best food source of iodine is seaweed and the Japanese people eat a lot of it. They also live longer.

If you are just beginning to alkalize your body, you might want to take a little more potassium bicarbonate for your initial “loading”. In 1926, Arm & Hammer offered these instructions “During the first day take six doses of half teaspoonful of Arm & Hammer Bicarbonate of Soda in glass of cool water, at about two hour intervals. During the second day take four doses of half teaspoonful of Arm & Hammer Bicarbonate of Soda in glass of cool water, at the same intervals. During the third day take two doses of half teaspoonful of Arm & Hammer Bicarbonate of Soda in glass of cool water morning and evening, and thereafter half teaspoonful in glass of cool water each morning until cold is cured.” Since cancer patients generally have too much sodium and not enough potassium in their body, we suggest substituting potassium bicarbonate for sodium bicarbonate.

As a general rule, when supplementing with potassium bicarbonate start with half a teaspoon taken with water once or twice a day. Slowly increase the number of doses and the size of each dose at a rate your body finds comfortable. Level off when your saliva pH is between 7 and 7.5. Maintain this pH for the rest of your life, letting the pH test tell you what is a sufficient daily dose of potassium bicarbonate. Don’t be impatient and do not get discouraged. It may take some time for the accumulation of acid in your body to be neutralized.

In time, you can minimize the amount of potassium bicarbonate needed by using the 11 other approaches to alkalinity on this page.

Calcium supplements generally contain some magnesium. However, magnesium is difficult to absorb and there are indications (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) that you should get as much magnesium as calcium, which is why we suggest taking supplemental magnesium daily. Do an Internet search for “rda magnesium too low” for more information. After nine months, women on magnesium supplements increased bone density by about 11%. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 1991; 2:165-178. “Multiple studies have shown that higher magnesium intake is associated with a higher bone mineral density in both men and women.” – Dr. Mercola. Magnesium deficiency is a primary cause of Alzheimer’s disease, and plays a role in type 2 diabetes. The magnesium supplement we recommend is called “Enzymatic Therapy – Krebs Magnesium-Potassium Chelates“. Each of these tablets give you 250 mg of magnesium, 100 mg of potassium plus these two alkaline minerals are chelated with five organic acids that are used in the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is the process in cells that creates cellular energy and is known as cellular respiration. We discuss this in greater detail on our oxygen page. Alternatively, tablets of potassium magnesium citrate can provide magnesium plus some more potassium. Potassium citrate is helpful to increase the zeta potential of bodily fluids, as is discussed in point number 7 below. Magnesium oxide and citric acid in water will produce magnesium citrate.

If you want to eat salt, use unrefined salt. It is generally colored (grey, pink) and comes in large crystals. Put it in a grinder and keep it on the dining table beside the pepper grinder. There is evidence that “high sodium intake induces a low grade metabolic acidosis and thereby causes bone resorption.” If you start showing signs such as muscle cramps or low blood pressure (90/60 or lower) that can result from too little sodium relative to potassium, then you might substitute some sodium bicarbonate for potassium bicarbonate or eat more salt.


Scientists refer to two kinds of acidosis and alkalosis: respiratory and metabolic. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are basically caused by too little or too much breathing. Too little breathing allows carbonic acid to build up in the blood, causing the blood to become acidic. Too much breathing (hyperventilation) causes carbonic acid in the blood to fall to abnormally low levels making the blood more alkaline. Carbonic acid is created by combining carbon dioxide with water.

Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis are caused by diet and metabolism. All metabolic wastes are acids: carbonic acid results from oxygen metabolism and lactic acid results from anaerobic metabolism, phosphoric and sulfuric acids come from protein metabolism, and so on. Uric acid (C5H4N4O3) results from the metabolism of purines which are a substance found in dying cells and certain foods.

“Lungs eliminate about 13000 mEq of hydrogen ions (H+) daily, as opposed to only 40 to 80 mEq excreted daily by the kidneys.” – Sources 1, 2 The hydrogen ions (and carbon dioxide) eliminated by the lungs are coming from carbonic acid (H2CO3).

(Editor’s note: The excretion of acid by the kidneys (40 to 80 mEq of hydrogen ions mostly in the form of uric acid, phosphates and ammonia) assumes the kidneys are healthy and functioning at full capacity. Chronic dehydration significantly reduces how much waste the kidneys can excrete. Consumption of unhealthy fats, too much sugar and salt, heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium), drugs, toxins, infections, atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and other factors damage the kidneys. Kidney function declines with age, falling about 1% per year after age 40. In reality, very few people have fully functioning kidneys.)

The kidneys are a vast network of filters. Each individual filter is called a “nephron”, and each of your two kidneys has about one million nephrons. However, as the kidneys are damaged due to trauma, diet and lifestyle defects, etc. the number of functioning nephrons declines. When the number of functioning nephrons has declined by 70% to 80% obvious health problems begin to appear due to inadequate filtration of body fluids. When functioning nephrons have declined 90% you either die or go on dialysis. “Kidney disease is often called a “silent” disease, because most people have no symptoms before they are diagnosed. In fact, you might feel just fine until your kidneys have almost stopped working.” Guyton & Hall (page 417-418) list the consequences of declining kidney function: edema from water and salt retention, acidosis, retention of waste products such as urea and uric acid, retention of other substances normally excreted including sulfates and phosphates, anemia, osteomalacia (demineralization of the bones), and hypertension. Vitamin D is converted by the kidneys to “active vitamin D” and as kidney function declines so does active vitamin D.

The Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton & Hall (page 400) lists 6 possible causes of metabolic acidosis:

1. kidney failure – nearly everyone probably has this to some degree

2. consumption of acids – nearly everyone is consuming an acid diet

3. diabetes – faulty sugar metabolism results in acid formation

4. & 5. vomiting and diarrhea can cause loss of bicarbonate from the intestines

6. kidney defect.

To diagnose acidosis, Guyton and Hall (page 401) state, “Therefore, in metabolic acidosis, one would expect a low pH, a low plasma bicarbonate concentration, and a reduction in Pco2 after partial respiratory compensation.”

To treat acidosis, Guyton and Hall (page 401) recommend attempting to correct the underlying problem, plus supplemental sodium bicarbonate or other substances that will produce bicarbonate in the body.

The greatest volume of acid is removed by the lungs, followed by a very limited ability of the kidneys to remove acid, and sweating. Beyond this, the body depends on buffers to neutralize acids. We maintain that the highly acid modern diet overwhelms the kidneys and buffers, resulting in chronic metabolic acidosis. To some degree, respiratory alkalosis can balance metabolic acidosis. Beyond this, the result is osteoporosis, gout, kidney stones, gall stones and other problems from accumulating acid in the system.

When we read about acidosis and alkalosis on the Internet, the medical profession always seems focused on the blood. The pH of blood is kept within a narrow range. Our focus is what happens to the rest of the body.


What happens when you consume potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3)? Potassium bicarbonate dissolves in water, becoming potassium (K+) and bicarbonate (HCO3). The potassium is used by the body, and surplus potassium will be removed by the kidneys.

The bicarbonate removes acid (H+) from the body:

HCO3 + H+ H2CObicarbonate plus acid becomes carbonic acid that is transported by the blood to the lungs

H2CO3 H2O + CO2 the lungs breathe out carbon dioxide, leaving only water

H2O + O2 the lungs breathe in oxygen. The red blood cells pick up oxygen from the plasma.

Note that bicarbonate is used up by this process. As you can see, bicarbonate HCO3 unites with an H+ ion to produce carbonic acid, and in the lungs carbon dioxide is expelled leaving only water. Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the body. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate precursors occur naturally in fruits and vegetables, and the ancient hunter gatherer diet contained far more bicarbonate than the modern meat and grain diet. Instead, the meat and grain diet depletes the body’s store of bicarbonate.


Conservation of Protein

Starting about age 30, the average person loses about 1% of lean muscle mass per year, year after year. This protein is replaced by fat. By old age the accumulated loss of muscle mass causes frailty that leads to falls, lack of mobility and eventual loss of independence.

The main reason for loss of muscle mass is said to be lack of exercise. Loss of muscle mass brings reduced physical activity that further reduces muscle mass. Other causes of muscle atrophy include medications (corticosteroids) and diseases (polio, Lou Gehrig’s, Guillain-Barre, muscular dystrophy). Cachexia is associated with cancer. As cancer consumes the body’s resources, the body wastes away. This wasting away is called cachexia.

All protein contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Fat and sugar are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The uniqueness of protein is nitrogen. When protein is broken down, the nitrogen is released as (NH2). In an acid environment, the (NH2) will combine with H+ to form ammonia (NH3) which is then discarded by the kidneys into the urine. So we can see here is another mechanism to remove H+ ions from the body. The H+ ion can combine with bicarbonate and be removed via the lungs, or the H+ ion can combine with (NH2) to form ammonia and be removed via the kidneys.

In the article Diet, evolution and aging on page 207 we read, “In disorders that cause chronic metabolic acidosis, protein degradation in skeletal muscle is accelerated [75-77], which increases the production of nitrogen end-products that are eliminated in the urine, thereby inducing negative nitrogen balance [77].” Our conclusion is that in addition to exercise, one must maintain an alkaline condition in the body for muscle mass to be maintained.

The article goes on to say, “And by correcting the pre-existing low-grade metabolic acidosis, KHCO3 decreased the pre-treatment rate of muscle proteolysis, further contributing to the improvement in nitrogen balance. The magnitude of the KHCO3-induced nitrogen sparing effect was potentially sufficient to both prevent continuing loss of muscle mass and to restore previously accrued deficits.” – page 209

The Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton & Hall (pages 397-398) takes the analysis further, stating that in the tubular lumen of the kidney ammonia NH3 will pick up an additional hydrogen ion H+ to become ammonium NH4+. Furthermore, chronic acidosis can increase NH4+ excretion as much as ten fold, to 500 mEQ/day, whereas in a state of alkalosis no ammonia-ammonium is excreted because there are no excess hydrogen ions available.

The kidneys can produce bicarbonate from carbonic acid, but they do this by transferring a hydrogen ion H+ to ammonia. In other words, the kidneys create bicarbonate at the expense of protein. The kidneys create bicarbonate only in the presence of acidosis. When the body is alkaline, the blood does not need more bicarbonate.


Acidosis (in general) – Consequences


Page 4 of 4


Possible Consequences of Non-Compensated Latent Acidosis

In the case of experimental acidosis induced orally, the result is a general reduction of buffer capacity – firstly to that of the blood and, with further acidic stress, to that of the intra-cellular spaces and the bone surface. If acid is supplied over a longer period, buffering is performed by releasing minerals from bone (Lemann et al., 1966). This observation has led to the hypothesis that a significant cause of osteoporosis (weakening of the bones) is a high acid strain associated with diet (Wachman und Bernstein, 1968).

In the case of latent acidosis, the connective tissue also suffers. When the buffer capacity is falling, the acid formed in the cells is stored in the musculature and in the connective tissue.

The collagen tissue consists of proteoglycan, whose portion of glucosaminoglycan is, for example, strongly charged with many sulphur residues. If these charges are neutralized by protons, the capacity of the proteoglycan to absorb water is reduced. The consequence is a loss of elasticity that has a deleterious effect on the functioning of cartilage tissue, tendons and ligaments. In the case of mechanical strain, the wearing of the cartilage tissue in particular will be further promoted.

Even the musculature itself can also suffer structural inflexibility because of acid deposits (through the transition of the inter-cellular fibres from a standard, rather liquid state to a less liquid gel); circulation declines and the disposal of acids is also handicapped by this. Muscle hardening and rheumatism of the soft parts can also be the consequence.

Editor’s note: The “acid deposits” mentioned above may take some time to be neutralized by your new alkaline diet and supplements. So if your saliva pH stubbornly remains acidic, or turns acid again a short while after consuming potassium bicarbonate, do not give up.  Persistence and determination are needed as you continue to alkalize your body until the accumulated acid deposits are dissolved and an alkaline condition is created throughout the body.

Bones and teeth are made from calcium phosphate. You can consume calcium in the form of bone meal or calcium hydroxyapatite which contain the needed phosphate, or you can take your calcium with a separate source of phosphate, such as lecithin or chia seeds. To preserve your bones and teeth it is good to consume about one gram of calcium and one tablespoon of lecithin or chia seeds daily. We mention lecithin and chia seeds in several places on this website because they provide many benefits to the body. Vitamins A, D and K are needed for absorption and utilization of calcium, and doctors are recommending more vitamin D as the benefits of vitamin D become known. Vitamin D can help prevent at least 16 different types of cancer. Vitamin K1 is abundant in leafy green vegetables, and vitamin K2 is made by healthy gut flora. Both forms of vitamin K are needed by the body for good health, however it is K2 that is essential for healthy teeth and bones.

Vitamin D Council recommended amounts


Based on the body’s indicated daily vitamin D usage, the Vitamin D Council recommends the following amounts of supplemental vitamin D3 per day in the absence of proper sun exposure.


 – Healthy infants – 1,000 IU/day
– Healthy children – 1,000 IU/day per every 25 lbs of body weight.
– Healthy adults – 5,000 IU/day

Additionally, children and adults with chronic health conditions may need as much as double these amounts.


If you want to supplement your diet with 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily, it is not necessary to consume a dozen low dose soft gels. If you search the Internet, you will find 5,000 IU soft gels available. Given that the body can produce 10,000 to 20,000 IU of vitamin D daily from sunshine, a supplement of 5,000 IU does not seem excessive. It is still a good idea to expose your skin to the sun or a UVB sunlamp on a regular basis, because the skin produces a variety of forms of vitamin D, including a water-soluble form called vitamin D3 sulfate that can do things and go places in the body that the fat soluble vitamin D cannot. The body will not produce more vitamin D than it needs, so getting too much vitamin D is unlikely. If you want to take 10,000 IU per day in supplements then a divided dose of one 5,000 IU soft gel with food at two different meals may be best.

Healthy Teeth and Gums

Teeth are held in the gums by connective tissue, and formation of connective tissue needs vitamins C, A and D. About 3 or 4 grams of vitamin C daily plus adequate vitamins A and D are required to prevent receding gums and the formation of pockets between the teeth and gums. Nearly everyone has subclinical scurvy.

The gingival sulcus is the space between the tooth and the gum. If you have gum problems, it is helpful to clean this space gently and properly. The technique is different from cleaning the teeth. Here is a video showing how to clean the sulcus. To clean the sulcus in this manner you will need a special “blotting brush” available on the Internet.

“Oil pulling” helps clean the mouth and gumline. “Oil pulling” means swishing oil in the mouth for 20 minutes. Why oil? Everyone knows that oil and water do not mix. Every micro-organism in the mouth is lipid coated. “Lipid” means oil. Rinsing the mouth with water does not wash out the micro-organisms. However, daily rinsing the mouth with oil washes them away. Billions of them. Which oil is best? Coconut oil is digested by the saliva enzyme lingual lipase into free medium chain fatty acids that have anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties. Video. Read more about the benefits of oil pulling with coconut oil 1, 2, 3. Cancer patients should not swallow the oil. The only oil cancer patients should eat is flax oil.

Teeth are made from calcium phosphate which must be obtained from the diet. Good sources include bone meal and calcium hydroxyapatite. Proper utilization of calcium within the body requires adequate magnesium plus vitamins D and K2. These nutrients all need to be in proper balance. Learn more here.

Tooth enamel is rebuilt both from within and without by an enzyme called adenosine diphosphatase. This enzyme is one of dozens of enzymes in the body that are inactivated by fluoride. It is best to avoid all sources of fluoride. Dr. Yoshiaki Omura found that eating one tablespoon of cilantro daily will help clear the body of heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and aluminum. These metals can be incorporated into enzymes throughout the body, rendering the enzymes dysfunctional.

Avoid eating dried fruit that sticks to the teeth. Make extra sure your teeth are clean before going to bed. That way your teeth will be maximum clean for the longest time, giving them an opportunity to heal. From time to time, use a “disclosure tablet” and redo missed areas. 

The positively charged H+ ion in acid saliva will pull the negatively charged phosphate ion right out of the tooth. Alkaline saliva is necessary to preserve and rebuild tooth enamel. Drink acidic liquids (e.g. lemonade) through a straw to minimize contact with the teeth. Rinse the mouth with water after consuming an acidic food or liquid.

Oral bacteria live in specific pH ranges. Acid producing bacteria live in an acid environment and die when the saliva becomes alkaline. Similarly, healthy oral bacteria live in a neutral to alkaline environment  and die when the saliva becomes acidic.

Subject’s Caries Status Baseline Saliva pH
Caries free 7.0
Caries inactive 7.0
Slight caries active 6.7
Marked caries active 6.5
Extreme caries active 6.4
Source of this information.

Use a toothpaste containing xylitol 1, 2. Xylitol breaks up the biofilm that protects decay-causing bacteria and holds acidic bacterial waste against the enamel. Xylitol also changes the bacterial population of the mouth, favoring non-decay causing bacteria.

Eat a diet of whole, unrefined foods. Dr. Weston Price examined the excellent dental health of primitive peoples around the world and found that the common factor was a diet of whole, unrefined foods. This diet contains fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains, fresh organic meats, fats, plus raw and fermented dairy. No white flour, white sugar, white rice, modern vegetable oils, or canned goods. Of particular importance for strong bones and teeth are the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, and K2). Kefir and sauerkraut are sources of vitamin K2. Videos 1, 2, 3.

According to Dr. Kevin Boyd, dental plaque is not intrinsically acid-producing. It does not produce tooth decay until it becomes “activated”. What activates plaque is simple carbohydrates that are not conjugated to their native fiber (which actually provides mechanical cleansing of the teeth).

Don’t eat sugar or white flour. Teeth are porous and healthy teeth have a flow of fluid from within carrying nutrients through to the outer structure of the tooth. Sugar, white flour and stress stop this flow of fluid, preventing the teeth from maintaining themselves. For more information search the Internet for “dentinal fluid transport” or read the book. (By “stress” what is meant here is stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, also called the “fight or flight” response. This is the opposite of stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system or the “rest and repair” response which facilitates the healthy flow of dentinal fluid.) Eat fruit, vegetables, proteins and fats. Avoid refined sugar/carbohydrate in all its forms.

A ketogenic diet that is based on fat for energy rather than carbohydrates is better for your teeth. On the ketogenic diet, your meals and snacks should essentially be vegetables, proteins and fats. Avoid sugar/carbohydrate in all its forms.

Find a dentist who practices minimally invasive dentistry and biomimetic dentistry 1, 2, 3.

A useful book is Cure Tooth Decay by Ramiel Nagel.

There is a link between oral health and systemic health.

Dr. Gerson (page 246) gave his cancer patients a 10% potassium solution. Perhaps you can find a potassium drink in your local health food store. Potassium tablets are commonly available. Potassium chloride is often found in grocery stores as a dietary salt alternative to sodium chloride. Search on the Internet for a suppliers of potassium chloride, potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, and potassium iodide if you cannot find them locally.

Salts of the alkaline minerals cesium, rubidium and potassium have been found by Dr. Brewer to be particularly effective in fighting cancer.

“A mass spectrographic analysis of cancer cells showed that the cell membrane readily attached cesium, rubidium and potassium, and transmitted these elements with their associated molecules into the cancer cell. In contrast cancer membranes did not transmit sodium, magnesium, and calcium into the cell: the amount of calcium within a cancer cell is only about 1% of that for normal cells. Potassium transports glucose into the cell. Calcium and magnesium transport oxygen into the cell. As a consequence of the above, oxygen cannot enter cancer cells so the glucose which is normally burned to carbon dioxide and water undergoes fermentation to form lactic acid within the cell. This anaerobic condition was pointed out by Warburg, as early as 1924.

Potassium, and especially rubidium and cesium are the most basic of the elements. When they are taken up by the cancer cells they will thus raise the pH of the cells. Since they are very strong bases as compared to the weak lactic acid it is possible that the pH will be raised to values in the 8.5 to 9 range. In this range the life of the cancer cell is short, being a matter of days at the most. The dead cancer cells are then absorbed by the body fluids and eventually eliminated from the system.Dr. Brewer, High pH Cancer Therapy With Cesium, page 5.

“M. von Ardenne of Dresden, East Germany investigated the tolerance of cancerous cells to pH levels…He found that cells at pH levels…above 7.5 enter a dormant state. At a pH of 7.8 and especially above 8 the life of the cell is very short.” Dr. Brewer, High pH Cancer Therapy With Cesium, page 16.


Potassium Bicarbonate Cancer Protocol

When Dr. Brewer writes above that at higher pH levels the life of a cancer cell is reduced to a few days, he offers the key to a potentially very effective protocol to get rid of cancer:

1. Keep a daily journal of your doses of potassium bicarbonate and measurements of your saliva pH. Use level teaspoons of bicarbonate for accurate measurement.

As a general rule, when supplementing with potassium bicarbonate start with half a teaspoon taken with water once or twice a day.

For this protocol, use warm water. Add a spoonful of sweetener such as maple syrup, blackstrap molasses, or honey. People have had good success with one to three times as much sweetener as bicarbonate, so find something in this range that tastes good to you. Drink on an empty stomach. Alternatively, you might try mixing a small amount of potassium bicarbonate (start with 1/2 teaspoon) with honey and eating it as a snack.

Slowly increase the number of doses and the size of each dose at a rate your body finds comfortable. Level off when your saliva pH is between 7 and 7.5. This is the healthy range you want to have for the long term. How much potassium bicarbonate do you need daily to maintain this level of alkalinity?

2. To raise your pH into the cancer killing range, increase the doses enough to raise your saliva pH into the 8 to 8.5 range for a few days, and then reduce the doses and return to a saliva pH between 7 and 7.5. Repeat as necessary.

According to Vernon Johnston’s experience, you will probably need about 2 level teaspoons of bicarbonate 3 times daily to achieve this higher level of alkalinity. A smaller or larger person than Vernon may wish to adjust the dose accordingly. You can see Vernon in a short video here.

As you increase the doses of bicarbonate your body may need time to adapt to higher levels of alkalinity. If you feel some discomfort reduce your dose of bicarbonate for a day or two and then try again.

3. Supplement this protocol with enzymes (1, 2) to help dissolve dead cancer cells, milk thistle to protect your liver from toxic substances released as dead cancer cells dissolve, moderate exercise to promote circulation, extra fluids and juices to flush the body, hyperthermia to cleanse the body, meditation to deal with stress, and superior nutrition (1, 2).


Vernon’s Dance With Cancer 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Vernon Johnston had stage IV prostate cancer metastasized to his bones. His cancer disappeared in two weeks when he followed a sodium bicarbonate protocol similar to the above.

In the presence of the sweetener, the cancer cells open up and more readily accept other nutrients. This effect is known as “insulin potentiation therapy”. You can read about it on the Internet.

People taking sodium bicarbonate, cesium carbonate or cesium chloride need to take supplemental potassium. Potassium bicarbonate automatically provides the required potassium.

Sodium bicarbonate, cesium carbonate and cesium chloride are meant to be taken only for a short time. Potassium bicarbonate provides nutrients the body requires and can be taken in moderation for the rest of your life.

Cesium dietary supplements (cesium carbonate, cesium chloride) are available on the Internet. However, moderation is a virtue. Cesium is ordinarily a trace mineral in the diet. Health Canada reports that some people have encountered problems with their consumption of large quantities of cesium salts when dealing with cancer. Generally, we use more economical potassium bicarbonate as our main alkalizer, supplemented with tablets of potassium magnesium citrate. These are nutrients needed by the body. The more expensive cesium carbonate and cesium chloride are a last resort cancer treatment, and not ordinarily part of the diet except in trace amounts.

Sodium bicarbonate warnings and contraindications.

Oxygen Rush


After drinking a glass of potassium bicarbonate, cesium chloride, cesium carbonate or vegetable juice people often experience an oxygen rush. The mind becomes more alert and clear, the body feels as though it is being cleansed and refreshed from within. What is happening?

The pH of arterial blood is normally 7.4 and venous blood is 7.35. However, this need not always be the case. In the Textbook of Medical Physiology page 386, Guyton & Hall state regarding the pH of blood “The lower limit of pH at which a person can live more than a few hours is about 6.8, and the upper limit is about 8.0.” Elsewhere on the same page they say it a different way, “Normal variations are only about 3 to 5 nEq/liter, but under extreme conditions, the hydrogen ion can vary from as low as 10 nEq/liter to as high as 160 nEq/liter without causing death”. From low to high, this represents a 16 fold variation in oxygen availability in the blood. We can say this because OH- is an oxygen donor and pOH varies inversely to pH.

In other words, there is a range of pH even for the blood. The kidneys do their best to maintain a constant pH in the blood, but they take time to do their job. When you drink a glass of alkaline solution, the alkalinity is absorbed into the blood quite quickly. If you have experienced the oxygen rush, you may have noticed that it can last an hour or more until the kidneys have restored the blood pH. If you drink a second glass of alkalinity an hour or two after the first, you may experience another oxygen rush. Dr. Max Gerson had his patients drink a glass of vegetable juice supplemented with 10% potassium solution each waking hour of the day. This creates pulses of alkalinity coursing through your veins.

Since the kidneys act so slowly, ordinarily the body relies on the lungs and buffers to rapidly normalize pH. Extra breathing and bicarbonate can quickly remove a temporary excess of acid, but the system is not designed to quickly remove excess alkalinity. This gives acid deposits in the body time to react to the temporary boost of alkalinity and be neutralized.

It is important to not over do it. Too much of anything quickly becomes a bad thing. Too much potassium, for example, can cause problems for the heart. Too much sodium or cesium create their own problems.  It is a question of balance. So take it easy, enjoy the oxygen rush, but don’t overdo it. An advantage of having an 8 part program for cancer is that no aspect needs to be taken to extreme, and any deficiencies in one part should be compensated for by the others. As your body becomes more alkaline, the effect of drinking an alkaline solution will be less noticeable. You will have a high level of alkalinity and oxygen 24/7.


Would you like to feel even better? Learn how to increase three neurotransmitters/hormones that aid inner awakening, relaxation and well being. These are dimethyltryptamine (DMT), serotonin and melatonin.

While it is well known that calcium needs vitamin D in order to be absorbed and utilized, most people in northern climates tend to be deficient in vitamin D, particularly in winter. Even in summer, recent advice from the medical profession to avoid the sun and to block ultraviolet light from reaching the skin through the use of sunscreens leads to vitamin D deficiency. Better advice is to experience the sun in moderation in all seasons. Stay out of the sun during the hottest part of a summer day, but otherwise utilize the sunlight to maximize your vitamin D production. Plus, consume vitamin D dietary supplements in all seasons. Supplementing the diet of seniors with vitamin D significantly reduces the possibility of bone fractures. There is evidence that vitamin D helps prevent cancer. A good source of vitamin D is fish oil. Fish oil also contains vitamin A, and there is evidence that vitamin A helps cure leukemia. Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer, affecting children as young as two or three years of age. Why not give your children a spoonful of cod liver oil each day?

While it is commonly understood that the body needs calcium to build bones, what is not generally known is bones are a complex matrix of many different minerals and if all the required minerals are not present then strong bones cannot be built. There are at least 18 key bone-building nutrients essential for optimum bone health. The implication is that it is easier to destroy bone through excess acidity in the body than it is to rebuild bone. Furthermore, as farm soils become depleted of many trace minerals the foods grown on these soils contain less and less of the required nutrients. At last count, the human body requires 90 different nutrients for optimum health, and the list is growing year by year. A good nutritional supplement is no longer optional. 


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